| Fever in a traveller
|Malaria Non Falciparum
|Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers (VHF)
|Marburg virus disease
| AIDS HIV
| Yellow fever
| Ebola Virus
| Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever
|African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping sickness)
|American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease)
| Notifiable Diseases UK
Asymptomatic or mild febrile illness in approximately 80% of patients. About 100,000 to 300,000 infections of Lassa fever occur annually, with about 5,000 deaths
- Animal-borne, or zoonotic, acute viral illness spread by the common African rat.
- Endemic in parts of West Africa including Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria
- The first documented case occurred in 1969.
- Lassa fever is named after the town in Nigeria where the first cases occurred.
- single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Arenaviridae family of viruses
- Onset 1-3 weeks after contact
- Most are mild: fever, general malaise and weakness, and headache.
- Others: severe symptoms including haemorrhaging (in gums, eyes, or nose, as examples), respiratory distress, repeated vomiting, facial swelling, pain in the chest, back, and abdomen, and shock.
- Hearing loss, tremors, and encephalitis. Death due to multi-organ failure.
- The most common complication of Lassa fever is deafness
- Mortality in the third trimester of pregnancy is particularly high
- ELISA test for IgM and IgG antibodies as well as Lassa antigen.
- Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in early stage of disease.
- Prevent: avoid contact with Mastomys rodents. Rodent proof containers. Controlling their numbers and spread.
- Isolation and precautions: masks, gloves, gowns, and goggles; using infection control measures, such as complete equipment sterilization; and isolating infected patients from contact with unprotected persons until the disease has run its course
- Ribavirin, has been shown to be most effective when given early in the course of the illness.
- Supportive care with fluid and electrolyte balance, oxygenation and blood pressure, as well as treatment of any other complicating infections