|Drug Toxicity - clinical assessment
|Aspirin or Salicylates toxicity
|Ethylene glycol toxicity
|Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity
|Renal Tubular Acidosis
|Tricyclic Antidepressant Toxicity
|Carbon monoxide Toxicity
|Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) toxicity
|Beta Blocker toxicity
|Calcium channel blockers toxicity
|Organophosphate (OP) Toxicity
|Toxin elimination by dialysis
|Drug Toxicity with Specific Antidotes
Ricin is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein, which has a heterodimeric structure consisting of an A-chain linked by a disulfide bond to a B-chain. The B-chain facilitates internalization of the A-chain, which then exerts its toxic effects by inhibiting protein synthesis leading to cell death.
- Extract from the castor bean. Potential bioterrorism threat - 500 mcg is deadly
- The process for extracting ricin is well known and has been described in a patent.
- The patent was removed from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database in 2004 but is still available online
- Naturally occurring lectin. Inside cells cause cell death
- Ricin is a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein
- Ricin-induced endothelial cell damage, which leads to fluid and protein leakage and tissue oedema, causing so-called vascular leak syndrome
- Inhaled ricin causes fever, chest tightness, cough and severe respiratory distress
- Ingested ricin causes Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain.
- Pulmonary oedema, Hypotension
- No antidote exists. Death within 3 days. Some may survive. Wash off any ricin contamination.
- Activated charcoal (if the ricin has been very recently ingested), or washing out their eyes with water if their eyes are irritated.
- Possible vaccines are being evaluated. Immunization against ricin exposure