Allergies are nickel, fragrances, preservatives, rubber (gloves), hair dye, adhesives, topical medications such as antibiotics.
- Itchy skin condition caused by an allergic reaction
- Type IV, or delayed, hypersensitivity reaction.
- Sensitisation occurs on initial exposure to the allergen and "memory" T-cells proliferate in lymphoid tissue.
- Subsequent exposure to allergen induces activation of the T-lymphocytes and inflammatory response.
- Rash after 48-72 hours after exposure to the allergen.
Causes: Tiny quantities of an allergen can induce dermatitis.
- Hair dye contains substances
- Nickel allergy
- Acrylate allergy associated with nail cosmetics.
- Topical antibiotics
Occupations at risk
- Metal workers
- Hairdressers, beauticians
- Health care workers
- Cleaners, painters and florists.
- Eczema of the wrist contact allergy to nickel watch bracelet
- Eczema of the lower leg when ankle strapping has been removed due to contact allergy to rosin in the adhesive plaster
- Hand dermatitis caused by rubber accelerator chemicals used in the manufacture of rubber gloves
- Itchy red face due to contact allergy with methylisothiazolinone, a preservative in wash-off hair products and baby wipes.
- Irritant contact dermatitis: excess water, soaps, detergents, solvents, acids, alkalis, and friction. Those with atopic dermatitis are particularly sensitive.
- Contact urticaria, rash seen in minutes of exposure and fades away within minutes to hours. Often due to latex.
- Fungal infections
- Skin biopsy if severe and Allergy testing
- Identify allergen using comprehensive patch tests and history.
- Wear appropriate gloves to protect hands from touching materials to which the patient reacts.
- Emollient creams, Topical steroids
- Topical or oral antibiotics for secondary infection
- Severe: Oral steroids, usually short courses, for severe cases. Azathioprine, Ciclosporin or other immunosuppressive agents. Tacrolimus ointment and pimecrolimus cream are immune-modulating drugs that inhibit calcineurin and may prove helpful for allergic contact dermatitis.