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@About this App@Contributers@DeveloperACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)AFP (Alpha-fetoprotein) TestingAIDS Dementia Complex (HIV)AIDS HIV InfectionAPGAR Scoring (Children)APTT and CoagulationAbacavirAbataceptAbbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS)AbciximabAbdominal Aortic AneurysmAbdominal paracentesis for ascitesAbducent NerveAbetalipoproteinaemiaAbnormal Vaginal bleedingAcamprosateAcanthocytosisAcanthosis NigricansAcarboseAccelerated Idioventricular RhythmAcetazolamideAcetylcholine Receptor AntibodiesAcetylcholinesterase inhibitorsAchalasiaAchilles Tendon ruptureAchondroplasia (Children)AciclovirAcid maltase deficiency (Pompe disease)Acne RosaceaAcne VulgarisAcoustic Neuroma (Schwannoma)Acrodermatitis enteropathica (Children)Acromegaly and GiantismAcromio-clavicular jointActinomyces israeliAction PotentialActivated CharcoalActrapid (Insulin)Acute Abdominal Pain - Acute PeritonitisAcute Acalculous CholecystitisAcute Anaphylactoid ReactionsAcute AnaphylaxisAcute Angle Closure GlaucomaAcute AppendicitisAcute Bacterial MeningitisAcute BronchitisAcute CholangitisAcute CholecystitisAcute Colonic Pseudo-obstructionAcute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) GeneralAcute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) NSTEMI USAAcute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) STEMIAcute Coronary Syndrome (Cardiac Troponins)Acute Coronary Syndrome Grace scoreAcute DeliriumAcute Disc lesionsAcute Disseminated EncephalomyelitisAcute Diverticulitis - Diverticular diseaseAcute Dystonic ReactionAcute EncephalitisAcute Eosinophilic PneumoniaAcute EpiglottitisAcute Exacerbation of COPDAcute HepatitisAcute HydrocephalusAcute HypotensionAcute InflammationAcute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP)Acute Interstitial nephritisAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)Acute Limb IschaemiaAcute Liver FailureAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL)Acute MastoiditisAcute MonoarthritisAcute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML)Acute MyocarditisAcute PancreatitisAcute Pelvic Inflammatory DiseaseAcute PericarditisAcute Phase reactantsAcute PorphyriasAcute Promyelocytic LeukaemiaAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Adults)Acute Retroviral Syndrome (HIV)Acute RhabdomyolysisAcute Rheumatic feverAcute Rotator cuff tearAcute Severe AsthmaAcute Severe ColitisAcute SinusitisAcute Stroke Assessment (ROSIER&NIHSS)Acute TonsilitisAcute Urinary RetentionAcute and Chronic GoutAcute and Chronic Heart FailureAcute on Chronic Liver Disease DecompensationAcutely Ill PatientAdalimumabAddenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACER)Addison Disease (Adrenal Insufficiency)AdefovirAdenosineAdenosine deaminase deficiencyAdhesive Capsulitis (Frozen Shoulder)Adjustment - Anxiety disordersAdrenal AntibodiesAdrenal PhysiologyAdrenaline (Epinephrine)AdrenoleukodystrophyAdrenomyeloneuropathyAdult Onset Still's DiseaseAfrican Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping sickness)Age related macular degenerationAicardi syndromeAir EmbolismAlbuminAlbumin-Protein Creatinine Ratio (PCR)Alcohol AbuseAlcohol Withdrawal (Delirium Tremens)Alcoholic (Steato)HepatitisAlcoholic KetoacidosisAldosterone PhysiologyAlendronate (Alendronic acid)AlfacalcidolAlkaline phosphatase (ALP)Alkalinisation of urineAlkaptonuriaAllergic Bronchopulmonary AspergillosisAllogeneic stem cell transplantationAllopurinolAlogliptin (Vipidia)AlopeciaAlpha FetoproteinAlpha ThalassaemiaAlpha subunit (ASU) of TSHAlpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiencyAlport's SyndromeAlteplaseAltitude sicknessAluminium and Magnesium AntacidsAlveolar Gas EquationAlzheimer disease (Dementia)AmantadineAmenorrhoeaAmerican Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease)AmilorideAmino acidsAminoglycosidesAminophyllineAminosalicylatesAmiodaroneAmiodarone and Thyroid diseaseAmitriptylineAmlodipineAmmonia EncephalopathyAmnestic syndromesAmoebiasis (Entamoeba histolytica)AmoxicillinAmphetamine toxicityAmphotericin BAmpicillinAnaemia of Chronic DiseaseAnagrelideAnakinraAnal CancerAndexanet alfaAndrogen insensitivity syndromeAneurysmsAngina bullosa haemorrhagicaAngiodysplasiaAngiomyolipomaAngioneurotic OedemaAngiotensin Converting Enzyme InhibitorsAngiotensin Converting enzyme (ACE)Angular Stomatitis - CheilitisAnion GapAnkle and Foot fractures and InjuriesAnkle-Brachial pressure Index (ABPI)Ankylosing spondylitisAnorexia NervosaAntacid medicationAntepartum haemorrhageAnterior Horn Cell diseasesAnterior circulationAnti Dementia DrugsAnti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (CCP) AntibodyAnti-D immunoglobulinAnti-Hu antibodiesAnti-OKT3 antibodiesAnti-RNP AntibodyAnti-Yo antibodiesAnti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)Antibiotics for Abdominal InfectionsAnticholinergic BurdenAnticholinergic syndromeAnticipationAnticoagulation and AntithromboticsAntidiuretic hormone (Vasopressin)Antigen presenting cellsAntimicrobial ChoicesAntimuscarinic drugsAntiphospholipid syndromeAntithrombin III deficiency (AT3)Aorta anatomyAortic DissectionAortic Regurgitation (Incompetence)Aortic SclerosisAortic StenosisAortoenteric fistulaApathetic thyrotoxicosisApixabanAplastic anaemiaApomorphineAppendix Cancer TumoursApproach to Assessing Sick ChildApproach to child with Acute GastroenteritisApproach to child with respiratory DistressArnold Chiari malformationArrhythmogenic Right ventricular CardiomyopathyArtemisininsArterial Blood gas analysisArterial Pulse assessmentArterial blood gas samplingArterial vs Venous vs Other Leg UlcersArteriovenous malformationsArtery of Percheron strokeArtery-to-artery embolic strokeArtesunateAsbestos Related Lung diseaseAscites Assessment and ManagementAspergillomaAspergillus fumigatusAspirinAspirin Salicylates toxicityAssessing Abdominal PainAssessing BreathlessnessAssessing Chest PainAssessing FallsAsteatotic eczemaAsthmaAstigmatismAstrocytomasAsystoleAtaxia TelangiectasiaAtazanavirAtenololAtherosclerosisAtopic Eczema or Atopic DermatitisAtorvastatinAtracuriumAtrial Ectopic beatsAtrial Fibrillation (Chemical cardioversion)Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)Atrial fibrillation (AF)Atrial flutterAtrial myxomaAtrial septal defect (ASD)Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardiaAtropine SulfateAutoantibodiesAutoimmune Haemolytic anaemia (AIHA)Autoimmune HepatitisAutonomic neuropathyAutosomal DominantAutosomal Dominant Polycystic kidney diseaseAutosomal RecessiveAzathioprineAzithromycinB lymphocytesBRCA genes (Familial Breast Cancer)Bacillus anthracisBacillus cereus poisoningBackpain / BackacheBaclofenBacteriaBacteroides fragilisBalanitis (Adults)Balanitis (Children)Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN)Balsalazide (Aminosalicylate)Barrett's oesophagusBartonellaBartters syndromeBasal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)Basic Fracture managementBasilar artery thrombosisBecker Muscular dystrophyBeclometasoneBeer PotomaniaBehavioural and Psychological Symptoms of DementiaBehcet's syndromeBell's palsyBendroflumethiazide (Bendrofluazide)Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)Benign Prostatic HyperplasiaBenign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasisBenzodiazepine ToxicityBenzodiazepinesBenzylpenicillin Sodium (Penicillin G)Berg Balance ScaleBeriplexBerylliosisBeta AgonistsBeta Blocker toxicityBeta ThalassaemiaBeta-2 MicroglobulinBeta-lactamasesBetahistine (Serc)BezafibrateBiceps ruptureBilateral adrenalectomyBiliary atresiaBilirubinBiochemical Lab valuesBisacodylBisoprololBisphosphonatesBladder CancerBladder StonesBleedingBleeding disordersBleeding due to DrugsBleomycinBlindness - global causesBlood products - Packed cells blood transfusionBlood Products - CryoprecipitateBlood Products - Fresh Frozen PlasmaBlood Products - PlateletsBlood film interpretationBlood gas valuesBloody DiarrhoeaBlotting Techniques: Gel ElectrophoresisBone Marrow TransplantationBone disease Lab resultsBone metabolism RANK RANKL OPG pathwayBone scintigraphy (Bone scan)Bordetella pertussis - Whooping coughBorrelia burgdorferiBorrelia recurrentisBotulismBrachial neuritis (neuralgic amyotrophy)Brachial plexus anatomyBrachial plexus and associated injuryBrain AbscessBrain Anatomy and functionBrain MRIBrain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP)Brain PhysiologyBrain Tumours (Cancer)Brainstem anatomyBranchial cleft cystBreast CancerBreast FibroadenomaBretyliumBroad complex TachycardiaBromocriptineBronchial adenomaBronchiectasisBronchiolitisBronchoscopyBrown-Sequard syndromeBrucellaBrugada syndromeBudd-Chiari syndromeBudesonideBuerger disease (Thromboangiitis obliterans )Bulbar vs Pseudobulbar palsyBulimia NervosaBullous PemphigoidBumetanideBunionsBuprenorphineBupropionBurkholderia cepaciaBurkitt's lymphomaBurnsBusulphan (Busulfan)ByssinosisC reactive protein (CRP)CADASILCARASILCHADS2 - CHA2DS2-VASc scoreCMV retinitisCNS fungal InfectionsCNS infectionsCSF RhinorrhoeaCT Head Basics (Stroke)CT Pulmonary angiogram (CTPA)CT imaging basics for StrokeCURB 65 scoreCabergolineCaecal VolvulusCaisson Disease - Decompression sicknessCalcitoninCalcitriol (1,25 Dihydroxycholecalciferol)Calcium Chloride or GluconateCalcium PhysiologyCalcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (Pseudogout)Calcium ResoniumCalcium channel blockers toxicityCalot's triangleCampylobacterCancer of Unknown PrimarCandesartanCandidiasisCannabis toxicityCapecitabineCapnocytophaga canimorsusCapnographyCapreomycinCaptopriCarbamazepineCarbapenemase-producing EnterobacteriaceaeCarbimazoleCarbon monoxide poisoningCarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)Carcinoid Heart DiseaseCarcinoid Tumour SyndromeCarcinoma of the Bile DuctCarcinoma of the GallbladderCardiac Amyloid heart diseaseCardiac Anatomy and PhysiologyCardiac Catheter ablationCardiac InfectionsCardiac MRICardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT) PacemakerCardiac Valve replacementCardioembolic strokeCardiogenic Pulmonary OedemaCardiogenic shockCardiology - History TakingCardiology Exam ListCardiology ExaminationCardiology Valves SummaryCardiopulmonary bypassCarmustineCarotid Artery anatomyCarotid Body TumourCarotid EndarterectomyCarotid Sinus SyncopeCarotid StentingCarotid artery DissectionCarotid sinus massageCarpal tunnel syndromeCarvedilolCase 01 Sudden weaknessCase 02 Loss of speechCase 03 Adult male weak legsCase 04 High calciumCase 05 High Potassium and heart failureCase 06 High calcium and weight lossCase 07 Weak eyesCase 08 Weak faceCase 09 A cause of DeliriumCase 10 Older patient presenting post strokeCase 11 Young patient with acute headacheCase 20 Young patient with acute headacheCase 21 HypoglycaemiaCase 22Case 23 Old man with tremorCase 24 Cancer and weakCase 99 (Acute breathlessness)Case TemplateCat Scratch DiseaseCataractCatheter Related Urinary Tract infection UTICatheter related Blood stream infectionCatheter related UTICauda equina syndromeCaudate NucleusCauses of Airway ObstructionCauses of Avascular Necrosis of Femoral headCauses of Sore throatCauses of WeaknessCavernous angiomas (Cavernomas)Cavernous sinusCavernous sinus thrombosisCefaclorCefalexinCefotaximeCeftazidimeCeftriaxoneCefuroximeCelecoxibCell Response to InjuryCellular Anatomy and PhysiologyCellulitisCentral Cord SyndromeCentral Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO)Central Retinal artery Occlusion (CRAO)Central Venous line InsertionCentral pontine myelinolysisCephalosporinsCerebellar Anatomy Physiology Signs DiseaseCerebellar HaemorrhageCerebellar StrokeCerebral Amyloid angiopathy (CAA)Cerebral AneurysmsCerebral AngiitisCerebral Atrophy vs HydrocephalusCerebral CortexCerebral MetastasesCerebral PalsyCerebral PerfusionCerebral Salt WastingCerebral Venous Sinus thrombosisCerebral arteritisCerebral microbleedsCervical Cancer screeningCervical Spine injuryCervical cancerCervical spondylosisCetirizineChancroidCharcot Foot Syndrome (CFS)Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) diseaseChediak Higashi syndromeChest Abdomen anatomyChest X Ray #1Chest X Ray InterpretationChest drain InsertionChlamydia - Chlamydophila pneumoniaeChlamydia psittaciChlamydia trachomatisChlorambucilChloramphenicolChlordiazepoxideChloroquineChlorphenamine(Chlorpheniramine)ChlorpromazineCholangiocarcinomaCholera (Vibrio cholera)Cholestatic JaundiceCholesteatomaCholesterol - LipidsCholinergic crisis-syndromeChondrocalcinosisChorea - BallismusChoreoacanthocytosisChromosome instability syndromesChronic BronchitisChronic HepatitisChronic InflammationChronic Inflammatory Demyelinating polyneuropathyChronic Interstitial NephritisChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)Chronic Lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (CML)Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)Chronic PancreatitisChronic PeritonitisChronic Radiation EnteritisChronic Urinary RetentionChronic Vision Uni-Bilateral loss (Blindness)Chronic and recurrent MeningitisChronic liver diseaseChronic mucocutaneous candidiasisChronic stable anginaChylomicronsCiclosporinCimetidineCinacalcetCiprofloxacinCirrhosisCisplatinCitalopramCladribineClarithromycinCleft lip or palateClindamycinClopidogrelClostridium botulinumClostridium difficileClostridium perfringensClostridium tetani - TetanusClotrimazole creamClotting pathwaysClozapineCo Careldopa (Sinemet)Co-Amoxiclav (Augmentin)Co-Beneldopa (Madopar)Co-codamolCo-trimoxazoleCoagulopathyCoal Worker's PneumoconiosisCoarctation of the Aorta (CoA aortopathy)Cocaine abuseCocaine induced chest painCocaine toxicityCoccidioidomycosisCodeineCoeliac diseaseCogan SyndromeColchicineCold Agglutinin Disease (CAD/AIHA)CollagenColloid cyst in the third ventricleColloidsColonic (Large bowel) ObstructionColonoscopyColorectal cancerColorectal polypsColposcopyComa managementCombined Oral contraceptive pill (COCP)Common Peroneal Nerve (CPN)Common variable immunodeficiencyComparing Rheumatoid and OsteoarthritisComplementComprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA)Confirming DeathCongenital Acyanotic Heart Disease (Children)Congenital Adrenal hyperplasiaCongenital Complete Heart BlockCongenital Cyanotic Heart Disease (Children)Congenital HypothyroidismCongenital Talipes Equinovarus - ClubfootConstipationConstrictive PericarditisContact allergic dermatitisContinuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP)Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysisContraceptionConus Medullaris syndromeCor PulmonaleCoronary artery bypass graft surgeryCoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 COVID 19Corticobasal degeneration (Dementia)Corticosteroid-related psychosisCorticosteroidsCorynebacterium diphtheriaeCotard delusionCoxiella BurnetiiCranial nerves and examinationCraniopharyngiomaCreatinine ClearanceCremation forms (UK)Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (Dementia)Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic feverCritical illness neuromuscular weaknessCrohn's diseaseCroupCryptococcus neoformans infectionsCryptogenic Fibrosing AlveolitisCryptogenic Organising Pneumonia (COP-BOOP)CryptosporidiosisCrysal arthritisCrystalloidsCushing diseaseCushing syndromeCutaneous LeishmaniasisCyanide toxicityCyanosis - Central and PeripheralCyclizineCyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzymesCyclophosphamideCycloserineCys leukotriene receptor antagonistsCystic FibrosisCystinosisCystinuriaCytokinesCytomegalovirus infectionsD DimerDNA and RNA short notesDNA replicationDabigatranDalteparinDandy Walker syndromeDantroleneDapagliflozinDarier's DiseaseDarunavirDeQuervain's thyroiditisDeath Certificates (UK)Deep brain stimulationDeep vein thrombosis (DVT)Dehydration PhysiologyDelayed Puberty CriteriaDemeclocyclineDementia with Lewy bodiesDementiasDemyelinating DiseasesDengue FeverDenosumab (Prolia)Dental AnatomyDentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophyDepressionDermatitis HerpetiformisDermatology termsDermatomesDermatomyositisDermoid cystsDesferrioxamineDesmopressin (DDAVP)Desogestrel (Progestogen Only Pill)Developmental Dislocation (Dysplasia) of the HipDevelopmental MilestonesDexamethasoneDiGeorge syndrome (thymic aplasia)Diabetes Insipidus (Cranial and Nephrogenic)Diabetes Mellitus Type 1Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 and DKA (children)Diabetes Mellitus Type 2Diabetes Mellitus in pregnancyDiabetes on the wardDiabetic Autonomic Neuropathy (DAN)Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) AdultsDiabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) with SGLT2 InhibitorsDiabetic NephropathyDiabetic RetinopathyDiabetic amyotrophyDiabetic footDiamond-Blackfan anaemiaDiamorphineDiaphragmatic disordersDiarrhoeaDiazepamDidanosine (ddI)DiethylstilbestrolDifferentials causes of Foot DropDifferentials of ABCDifferentials of Generalised lymphadenopathyDifferentials of Painful thighDifferentials of XXXDiffuse Oesophageal spasmDiffuse large B-cell lymphomaDiffusion CapacityDigoxinDigoxin ToxicityDihydrocodeineDilated cardiomyopathyDiltiazemDiphtheriaDipyridamoleDischarges against adviceDiscoid lupus erythematosus (DLE)Disease templateDiseases with associated cancersDislocation Sternoclaivcular jointDisopyramideDisseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)Distributive ShockDisulfiram (Antabuse)DobutamineDog BitesDog Bites HandDominant R wave in V1DomperidoneDonepezil (Aricept)DonovanosisDopamine HydrochlorideDopamine agonistsDown's syndrome (Trisomy 21)DoxapramDoxazosin (Cardura)DoxepinDoxorubicin (Adriamycin)DoxycyclineDrivingDrowningDrug Induced Parkinson diseaseDrug Reaction Eosinophilia Systemic Symptoms DRESSDrug TemplateDrug Toxicity - clinical assessmentDrug Toxicity with Specific AntidotesDrug induced Lupus ErythematosusDrug induced liver diseaseDrugsDrugs ListDrugs to Avoid in Acute Renal failureDrugs to avoid ElderlyDrugs to avoid in Liver failureDry and Wet GangreneDual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)Duchenne muscular dystrophyDulaglutide GLP-1 agonistDuloxetineDuodenal Atresia (Children)Dupuytrens contractureDysenteryDysphagiaECG - Acute Coronary SyndromeECG - Acute ST Elevation Myocardial InfarctionECG - Atrial fibrillationECG - Atrial flutterECG - BasicsECG - Broad complex tachycardia (possible VT)ECG - Brugada syndromeECG - Causes of a Dominant R wave in V1ECG - Early Repolarisation vs STEMIECG - First degree AV BlockECG - Heart BlockECG - HyperkalaemiaECG - InterpretationECG - Ischaemic Heart DiseaseECG - Left Axis DeviationECG - Left Bundle Branch Block LBBBECG - Left Ventricular HypertrophyECG - Low Voltage ComplexesECG - Narrow complex tachycardiaECG - Normal appearanceECG - Pathological Q wavesECG - QT intervalECG - Right Axis DeviationECG - Right Bundle Branch Block RBBBECG - ST-T T waves changesECG - Supraventricular tachycardia ECG - The QRS complexECG - Tutorial from Queens UniversityECG - Ventricular fibrillationECG - Ventricular tachycardiaECG - Wolff Parkinson White syndrome (WPW)ECG - short PR intervalECG - sinus pauseECG - tall R wave V1ENT Exam - Assessing hearingENT infectionsEbola Virus DiseaseEbstein anomalyEchinocytesEchocardiogramEcstasy toxicityEctopia lentis (subluxation of the lens)Ectopic PregnancyEctropionEculizumabEdoxaban (Lixiana)Edward syndrome (trisomy 18 syndrome)Efavirenz (Sustiva) EFVEhlers-Danlos syndromesEhrlichiosisEikenella corrodensEisenmenger's syndrome (Children)Elbow fractures and InjuriesElectrical injuryEloquent brainEmergency DrugsEmphysemaEmpty sella syndromeEmtricitabine (Emtriva) FTCEnalaprilEnd of Life Care PrescribingEndocarditis and StrokeEndocrinology Lab valuesEndometrial (Uterine) CancerEndometriosisEndoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography XEndothelinsEnfuvirtideEnoxaparin Sodium (Clexane-Lovenox)EnoximoneEntacaponeEnterococciEnteropathic SpondyloarthritisEnzyme inducers and inhibitorsEosinophilic granulomatosis (Churg Strauss)EpendymomaEpidural HaematomaEpidural abscessEpilepsy - General ManagementEpilepsy - Idiopathic Generalised EpilepsyEpilepsy - Mesial temporal lobe epilepsyEpilepsy - Post TraumaticEpilepsy in PregnancyEpiscleritisEpistaxisEplerenoneEponymous brainstem strokesEpstein-Barr Virus infectionEquivalent doses of OpiatesErb PalsyErgocalciferol (Calciferol)Erlotinib (Tarceva)Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiaeErythema MultiformeErythema NodosumErythrocyte Sedimentation rate (ESR)ErythrocytesErythrodermic PsoriasisErythromycinEscherichia coliEscitalopramEsomeprazoleEssential Thrombocythaemia (ET)Essential TremorEtanerceptEthambutolEthanolEthanol toxicityEthylene glycol toxicityEtomidateEtravirine (intelence) ETREwing sarcomaExenatide (Byetta) GLP1 agonistExercise stress testExploding head syndromeExtradural haematomaExtrapyramidal symptomsExtrinsic Allergic alveolitis (Hypersensitivity)Eye infectionsEzetimibeFabry diseaseFacial NerveFacioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophyFactor V Leiden DeficiencyFaecal CalprotectinFahr syndromeFailure to thrive or Faltering growthFamilial Adenomatous polyposis (FAP)Familial AmyloidosisFamilial HypercholesterolaemiaFamilial Mediterranean Fever (FMF)Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH)Family Tree (Pedigree)FamotidineFanconi AnaemiaFanconi SyndromeFat embolismFatigue - CausesFatty acidsFebrile seizuresFelodipine (Dihydropyridine)Femoral HerniaFemoral triangleFemur fractures and InuriesFentanyl - FentanilFerritinFerrous Fumarate - Gluconate - SulphateFetal Alcohol SyndromeFetal circulationFever - Pyrexia of unknown origin (FUO PUO)Fever in a travellerFibratesFibrinogenFibromuscular dysplasiaFibromyalgiaFidaxomicinFinasteride (5 alpha-reductase inhibitor)First SeizureFitz-Hugh Curtis SyndromeFlail ChestFlecainide AcetateFlexor sheath infection (flexor tenosynovitis)FlucloxacillinFluconazoleFlucytosineFludrocortisoneFluid balances statusFlumazenil (Annexate - Romazicon)FluoxetineFocal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)Foix-Alajouanine syndromeFolate (Folic) acidFolate deficiencyFolinic acid (Leucovorin)FomepizoleFondaparinuxFood borne diseaseFoscarnet SodiumFosfomycinFosphenytoinFoster Kennedy SyndromeFournier's gangreneFracture TemplateFractured ClavicleFractured Neck of FemurFractured Pubic RamusFractured ScapulaFractured Shaft FemurFractured Tibia and FibulaFractures Shaft HumerusFractures in ChildrenFractures of Upper humerusFragile X syndromeFrailtyFraser guidelines and Gillick CompetenceFree RadicalsFriedreich's AtaxiaFrontotemporal dementiaFull or Complete Blood Count (FBC CBC)FungiFurosemide (Frusemide)Fusidic acidFusobacteria - Tropical ulcerFusobacteriumG protein-coupled receptorsGP Emergency Drugs CarriedGabapentinGalactorrhoeaGalantamineGamete intra-fallopian tube transfer (GIFT)Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)Gamma hydroxy butyrate (GHB) toxicityGanciclovir - ValganciclovirGardner syndromeGardnerella vaginalisGas GangreneGastric (MALT) LymphomaGastric CancerGastric Outlet obstruction (pyloric stenosis)GastrinomaGastro Intestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST)Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (Adult GORD)Gastro-Oesophgeal Reflux (Paediatrics GORD)GastroenteritisGastroenterology Exam ListsGastroenterology ExaminationGastroenterology HistoryGastroenterology assessment - JaundiceGastrointestinal anatomy and physiologyGastrointestinal perforationGastrostomy (PEG) tubesGaucher's diseaseGene componentsGenetic DiseasesGentamicinGiardiasisGilbert's syndromeGingival (Gum) hyperplasia-hypertrophyGitelman's syndromeGlasgow Blatchford ScoreGlasgow Coma scaleGlatiramer acetate (Copaxone)GlibenclamideGliclazideGlimepirideGlipizideGlobus PallidusGlomerulonephritisGlossitisGlucagonGlucagonomaGlucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencyGlucose Tolerance TestGlutamateGlycated HaemoglobinGlyceryl Trinitrate (GTN)Glycogen storage diseasesGlycolysis_Krebs_Electron_Transport_ChainGlycopyrronium BromideGoitreGolfer's ElbowGolimumab (Simponi)Goodpasture's syndrome (Anti GBM disease)Goserelin (Zoladex)Gradenigo's syndromeGrades of RecommendationGram StainGranuloma annulareGranulomatosis with Polyangitis GPA (Wegener)Graves DiseaseGriseofulvinGrowth Hormone DeficiencyGuillain Barre SyndromeGum hypertrophyGuthrie test New Born blood spotGynaecological History TakingGynaecomastiaHAS-BLED scoreHIV and Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)HIV and Pre-exposure prophylaxisHIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN)HIV disease AssessmentHTLV-1 Associated myelopathyHaematemesisHaematology Examination - SplenomegalyHaematology Lab valuesHaematuria Mild to SevereHaemodialysisHaemoglobinsHaemolysisHaemolytic AnaemiaHaemolytic Uraemic syndromeHaemolytic disease of the newbornHaemophilia AHaemophilia BHaemophilus aegyptiusHaemophilus ducreyiHaemophilus influenzaeHaemophilus parainfluenzaeHaemopoiesisHaemorrhagic TransformationHaemorrhagic strokeHaemorrhoids (Piles)Hairy Cell LeukaemiaHairy LeukoplakiaHallervorden-Spatz disease (PKAN)HaloperidolHamman-Rich syndromeHand foot and mouth diseaseHand fractures and InjuriesHantavirus infectionsHartmann's solution (Ringer's lactate)Hartnup disease*Hashimoto's (Steroid responsive) EncephalopathyHashimoto's thyroiditisHbA1cHead (Brain) InjuryHead and Neck CancersHeadache - Analgesic overuseHeadache - Assessing Acute and SevereHeadache - Basilar MigraineHeadache - ClusterHeadache - Low CSF pressureHeadache - MigraineHeadache - TensionHeadaches - GeneralHearing aidsHeat StrokeHelicobacter pyloriHelvetica Spotted feverHemicraniectomyHenoch-Schonlein purpuraHeparin - GeneralHeparin - Low Molecular Weight HeparinHeparin - Unfractionated HeparinHeparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)Hepatic EncephalopathyHepatitis AHepatitis BHepatitis CHepatitis DHepatitis EHepatocellular CarcinomaHepatorenal syndromesHereditary ElliptocytosisHereditary HaemochromatosisHereditary Haemorrhagic TelangiectasiaHereditary Spastic ParaparesisHereditary SpherocytosisHereditary angio-oedemaHereditary neuropathy with pressure palsiesHereditary non polyposis coli (Lynch syndrome)Herpes GestationisHerpes SimplexHerpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSV)Herpes VirusesHerpes Zoster Ophthalmicus (HZO) ShinglesHerpes simplex keratitis (HSK)Heyde syndromeHiatus herniaHiccups (Singultus)High Dose Dexamethasone Suppression TestHip pain in childrenHirschsprung disease (congenital megacolon)Hirsuitism XXXHistonesHistoplasmosisHodgkin LymphomaHolt-Oram syndromeHolter monitor (tape) 24-72 hHomocystinuriaHookwormHorner's syndromeHospital acquired Pneumonia (NICE 139)Human albumin solution (HAS)Human prion diseasesHumeral fractures and injuriesHunter's syndrome (MPS-2)Huntington ChoreaHurler's syndrome (MPS-1)Hydatid disease (Echinococcus)Hydatidiform moleHydralazineHydrocortisoneHydrogen BondsHydrops fetalisHydroxocobalaminHydroxocobalamin - Cyanocobalamin (B12)HydroxychloroquineHydroxyurea-HydroxycarbamideHyoscine (Buscopan)Hyper IgM syndromeHyperbaric Oxygen therapyHypercalcaemiaHyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS)Hyperinsulinaemic-euglycemic therapy (HIET)HyperkalaemiaHyperkalaemic and Hypokalaemic Periodic ParalysisHypermagnesaemiaHypernatraemiaHyperphosphataemia (High phosphate)HyperprolactinaemiaHypersensitivity reactionsHypertensionHypertension in PregnancyHypertriglyceridaemia (HTG)Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM - HOCM)Hyperventilation SyndromeHyperviscosity syndromeHypocalcaemiaHypoglycaemiaHypogonadism (Female)Hypogonadism (male)HypokalaemiaHypokalaemic Periodic ParalysisHypomagnesaemiaHyponatraemiaHypoparathyroidismHypophosphataemia (Low phosphate)Hypopituitarism (Pituitary Failure)HypospadiasHypothermiaHypothyroidismHypovolaemic or Haemorrhagic ShockIL-12 receptor deficiencyIV ImmunoglobulinIbandronic acid (Bisphosphonate)IbuprofenIcatibantIdiopathic Intracranial hypertensionIdiopathic Parkinson diseaseIdiopathic Pulmonary FibrosisIgA Nephropathy (Berger's disease)Images - Spot diagosesImatinib mesylateImipenem (Primaxin) with CilastinImmune Reconstitution SyndromeImmune(Idiopathic) Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD)ImpetigoImplantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)Impulse control disordersInclusion Body MyositisIncubation periodsIndapamideIndinavir (IND)Infection screening in Septic patientInfections and their Microbial causeInfectious MononucleosisInfective ConjunctivitisInfective EndocarditisInfertilityInfliximabInfluenzaInguinal HerniaInitial Trauma AssessmentInjury Severity Score (ISS)Insomnia - sleep issuesInsulinInsulinomaInterferon BetaIntermittent ClaudicationInternal CapsuleInternuclear OphthalmoplegiaInterpreting HaematinicsInterstitial KeratitisIntestinal obstruction (Children)Intra Aortic Balloon PumpIntraabdominal abscessIntracerebral Haemorrhage (ICH) ScoreIntracranial HypertensionXIntravenous Iron Replacement (Ferrous)Intraventricular haemorrhage (neonates)Intubation and Mechanical VentilationIntussusception (Adults)Intussusception (Children)Iodine deficiency GoitreIpratropium Bromide (Atrovent)IrbesartanIron SaltsIron deficiency AnaemiaIron toxicityIrritable bowel syndromeIschaemic ColitisIschaemic StrokeIschaemic heart diseaseIsoniazidIsoprenalineIsosorbide DinitrateIsosorbide mononitrateIsotretinoin (Accutane)Ispaghula Husk (Fybogel)IvabradineJansen DiseaseJanus kinase 2Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndromeJob Syndrome (Hyper IgE syndrome)Jugular Venous Pressure (JVP)Junctional TachycardiaJuvenile DermatomyositisJuvenile Idiopathic arthritis (Stills Disease)Juvenile Myoclonic epilepsy (JME)Kallmann's syndromeKaposi sarcoma (KS)Karnofsky performance status scaleKawasaki diseaseKennedy SyndromeKeratoconusKernicterusKetamineKetoconazoleKlebsiella pneumoniaKlinefelter Syndrome (Children)Klumpke palsyKnee fractures and InjuriesKoebner phenomenonKugelberg Welander syndromeKwashiorkorL-Thyroxine (T4)Labetalol (Trandate)Labyrinthitis - Vestibular NeuronitisLactateLactate dehydrogenase (LDH)Lactic acidosisLactobacillus acidophilusLactose IntoleranceLactuloseLady Windermere syndromeLambert-Eaton syndrome (LEMS)Lamivudine (3TC)LamotrigineLangerhans Cell Histiocytosis XLansoprazoleLanthanumLateral Medullary SyndromeLaxativesLe Fort FracturesLead toxicityLeber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)LeflunomideLegal definition of BlindnessLegionella pneumophilaLeishmaniasis (Cutaenous and Visceral)Lemierre's syndromeLenalidomide (Revlimid)Length Dependent PolyneuropathyLennox-Gastaut syndromeLenticulostriate branch occlusionLeprosyLeptinLeptospira interrogansLeptospirosis (Weil's Disease) (Notifiable)Leriche syndrome (aortoiliac occlusive disease)Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (Children)LeukaemiaLeukaemias in GeneralLeukoariosisLeukocytoclastic vasculitisLeukotrienesLevetiracetam (Keppra)LevodopaLevomepromazineLevosimendanLi Fraumeni syndromeLichen PlanusLiddle's syndromeLidocaine(Lignocaine)Lightning strikeLimb girdle dystrophyLimbic EncephalitisLinagliptin (Trajenta)LinezolidLinkageLiothyronine Sodium L-Triodothyronine (T3)Lipid emulsion therapy - IntralipidLipid management [NICE 2014]LipoatrophyLipoprotein lipase deficiencyLiraglutide (Victoza)LisinoprilListerial MeningitisListeriosisLithiumLithium toxicityLivedo ReticularisLiver Anatomy PhysiologyLiver BiopsyLiver Function TestsLiver TransplantationLiver abscessLiver disease in PregnancyLocalisation of cortical functionLofepramineLong QT syndrome (LQTS) AcquiredLong QT syndrome (LQTS) CongenitalLong term Oxygen therapy (LTOT)Loop diureticsLooser's zonesLoperamideLopinavirLoratadineLorazepamLosartanLow Dose Dexamethasone Suppression TestLower Gastrointestinal BleedingLugol iodineLumbar puncture and CSF interpretationLumbrosacral radiculopathyLung AbscessLung CancerLung ComplianceLung EmpyemaLung TransplantLupus NephritisLupus VulgarisLyme diseaseLymphocytic HypophysitisLymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV)LyonizationLysosomal storage diseasesMCune Albright syndromeMELASMacrocytic anaemiaMacroglossiaMagnesium PhysiologyMagnesium Sulphate - SulfateMagnetic resonance cholangiopancreatographyMagnetic resonance imagingMajor Histocompatibility complexMalabsorption - small intestineMalaria (non falciparum)Malaria FalciparumMale InfertilityMale Urethral CatheterisationMale erectile dysfunctionMalignant AscitesMalignant Hyperpyrexia (Malignant Hyperthermia)Malignant HypertensionMalignant MelanomaMalignant pleural mesotheliomaMallet FingerMallory-Weiss TearMalnutrition Universal Screening ToolManiaMannitolMantle cell lymphomaMarantic EndocarditisMarasmusMaraviroc (Celsentri)Marfan syndromeMarginal Zone LymphomaMassive HaemoptysisMaturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY)McArdles disease (type V)Measles (notifiable)MebeverineMeckel's diverticulumMeconiumMedian NerveMedical Mnemonics Basic SciencesMedical Mnemonics CardiologyMedical Mnemonics EndocrineMedical Mnemonics Mental HealthMedical Mnemonics MiscellaneousMedical Mnemonics NeurologyMedical ProceduresMedical TeethMedullary Sponge kidneyMedulloblastomaMefenamic acidMefloquine (Larium)Megaloblastic anaemiaMelatoninMelioidosisMemantine HydrochlorideMembranous GlomerulonephritisMenetrier diseaseMeniere diseaseMeningiomaMeningitis in the ImmunocompromisedMenopauseMenstrual cycleMental Capacity Act 2005Mental Health Act 1983Mental State ExaminationMercaptopurineMeropenemMesalazine (Aminosalicylate)Mesangiocapillary GlomerulonephritisMesenteric infarctionMetabolic Syndrome XMetabolic acidosisMetabolic alkalosisMetachromic leucodystrophyMetastatic AdenocarcinomaMetastatic bone diseaseMetforminMethaemoglobinaemiaMethanol ToxicityMethodoneMethods to reduce toxin absorptionMethotrexateMethylcelluloseMethylprednisoloneMetoclopramideMetolazoneMetoprololMetronidazole (Flagyl)Metyrapone (Metopirone)MiconazoleMicroangiopathic Haemolytic anaemiaMicrocytic anaemiaMicroscopic PolyangiitisMicroscopic colitisMicrostomiaMidazolamMiddle East Resp Syndrome (MERS) CoronavirusMidodrineMigraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS)Miller-Fisher syndromeMilwaukee shoulder syndromeMini Mental State Examination (MMSE)Minimal Change Disease GlomerulonephritisMinocyclineMinoxidilMirabegronMirizzi syndromeMirtazapineMiscarriageMisoprostolMitochondrial diseasesMitral Regurgitation (Incompetence)Mitral StenosisMitral Stenosis vs Regurgitation - DominanceMitral Valve prolapseMittleschmerzMixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD)Mobility aidsModified Duke Criteria for EndocarditisModified Oxford Handicap Scale (MOHS)Modified Rankin ScoreMolluscum contagiosumMonoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significanceMonocular loss of visionMonocytesMonosodium glutamate (MSG) syndromeMontelukastMontreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA)Moraxella catarrhalisMorphine SulphateMosquito borne diseasesMotor Neuron Disease (MND-ALS)Moyamoya diseaseMucormycosisMultifocal Atrial TachycardiaMultifocal Motor Neuropathy with Conduction blockMultiple Antithrombotics AnticoagulantsMultiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type II (MEN2)Multiple MyelomaMultiple PregnancyMultiple Sclerosis (MS) DemyelinationMultiple System Atrophy (MSA)Mumps (Notifiable)Muscles of the Abdominal RegionMuscles of the BackMuscles of the Head and NeckMuscles of the Lower LimbMuscles of the Pelvis and PerineumMuscles of the Thoracic RegionMuscles of the Upper limbMyasthenia GravisMycobacterium TuberculosisMycophenolate mofetilMycoplasma pneumoniaeMycoplasmasMycosis Fungoides (Sezary Syndrome)Myelodysplastic syndrome (Myelodysplasia)MyelofibrosisMyelofibrosis vs CMLMyelopathyMyeloproliferative disordersMyobacterium avium Complex InfectionMyocardial perfusionMyoclonusMyotonic dystrophy - Dystropica myotonicaMyxoedema comaN-Acetylcysteine (Parvolex)NEWS Reacting to Low Oxygen SaturationsNICE Guidelines LinksNICE Trauma Guidance Summary 2016NSAID toxicityNaloxone (Narcan) Opiate antagonistNaproxenNarcolepsyNasal polypsNasogastric tube insertionNatalizumab (Tysabri)National Early Warning Score NEWS 2 ScoreNeck PainNeck swellings and lumpsNecrotising Enterocolitis (Infants)Necrotising fasciitisNeedlestick injuryNefopamNeisseria gonorrhoeaeNeisseria meningitidisNelson SyndromeNeomycinNeonatal Abstinence Syndrome NASNeonatal JaundiceNeonatal Lupus ErythematosusNeonatal meningitisNeostigmineNephritic syndromeNephroblastoma (Wilm's tumour)Nephrotic syndromeNephrotoxic drugsNerve conduction studiesNerve fibresNeuroanatomy 101Neuroanatomy imagesNeuroblastomaNeurocysticercosisNeuroferrinopathyNeurofibromatosis Type 1Neurofibromatosis Type 2Neuroleptic Malignant SyndromeNeurological - Relative Afferent pupillary defectNeurological - Vision and Eye movementsNeurological Examination - CognitionNeurological Examination - Cortical FunctionsNeurological Examination - MotorNeurological Examination - SensoryNeurological Examination - Speech&LanguageNeurological ListsNeurological assessment - PtosisNeurological examination - EyesNeurological or ENT Examination - NystagmusNeurology - History takingNeurology Exam - Reflex findingsNeuromyelitis optica*Neuropathic Pain ManagementNeurotransmittersNeutropeniaNeutropenic SepsisNeutrophil Alkaline PhosphataseNeutrophilsNevirapine (Viramune) NEV-NVPNiacin deficiency (Pellagra Vitamin B6)Nicardipine (Cardene)NicorandilNiemann-Pick diseaseNifedipineNimodipine (Nimotop)Nitric OxideNitrofurantoinNitrous oxideNizatidineNocardiaNoise induced hearing lossNon Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease NAFLDNon Convulsive Status EpilepticusNon Hodgkin LymphomaNon alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)Non gonococcal urethritisNon invasive ventilation (NIV)Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)Non sustained Ventricular tachycardiaNoonan syndromeNoradrenalineNormal DistributionNormal Pressure HydrocephalusNormal Saline 0.9%Normocytic anaemiaNortriptylineNosocomial infectionsNotifiable disease and organisms UKNutrition in Infants BreatsfeedingNystatinOSCE - Administer IV InjectionOSCE - Blood cultureOSCE - VenepunctureOSCE - Venous Cannula InsertionObsessive-Compulsive disorderObstetric definitionsObstructive ShockObstructive Sleep ApnoeaOctreotideOculomotor Nerve (IIIrd Cranial Nerve)OedemaOesophageal CarcinomaOesophageal Perforation - RuptureOesophageal Variceal BleedingOesophagogastroduodenoscopyOlanzapineOlfactory Nerve (I)OligodendrogliomaOlmersartanOlsalazine (Aminosalicylate)OmalizumabOmeprazoleOnchocerciasisOncogenic virusesOncological emergenciesOndansetronOne Table TemplateOphthalmology Exam ListsOpiate ToxicityOpiatesOpicaponeOpioid toxicityOptic Neuritis-NeuropathyOptic atrophyOptic tract anatomyOral Aphthous UlcersOral CandidiasisOral LeukoplakiaOrbital vs Preorbital CellulitisOrganism and sensitivitiesOrganophosphate (OP) PoisoningOrphenadrineOrthopaedic infectionsOrthostatic - Postural hypotensionOscillopsiaOseltamivir - TamifluOsteoarthritisOsteogenesis ImperfectaOsteogenic sarcoma (Osteosarcoma)Osteomalacia-Rickets-Vitamin DOsteomyelitisOsteonecrosis of the jawOsteopetrosisOsteoporosisOtitis Externa (Malignant)Otitis MediaOtosclerosisOttawa rules for ankle and foot x-rayOvarian CancerOvarian CystOvaryOxford community stroke project (Bamford)Oxybutynin (Ditropan)Oxycodone (Oxycontin-Oxynorm)Oxygen delivery devicesOxytetracyclinePEDIS Score for Diabetic Foot UlcersPOEMS syndromePabrinexPacemaker DDDPacemaker VVIPacemaker syndromePacemakersPacing - Indications for temporary pacingPaediatric emergenciesPaediatricsPaget's (Bone) diseasePain ManagementPainful Shoulder syndromesPalliatiion - Nausea Dyspnoea Secretions PainPalliation prescribingPalpitationsPamidronate (Bisphosphonate)Pancoast tumour (Cancer)Pancreatic CancerPanton-Valentine leucocidin toxinPantoprazolePapilloedemaParacetamol (Acetaminophen)Paracetamol toxicityParadoxical embolisationParaneoplastic Encephalitis with NMDA antibodiesParaneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis (Dementia)Paraneoplastic cerebellar degenerationParaphimosisParaquat toxicityParkinson Plus syndromesParkinsonismParonychiaParoxetineParoxysmal Nocturnal HaemoglobinuriaParvovirus (Erythrovirus 19) B19 infectionPasteurella multocidaPatau syndrome (trisomy 13)Patent Ductus arteriosus (PDA) (Children)Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO)Pathogen - pattern recognition receptorsPathological bone fracturePegvisomantPelvic fracturesPemphigus VulgarisPenetrating Abdominal TraumaPenetrating Thoracic TraumaPenicillaminePenicillinsPenile CancerPeptic ulcer diseasePercutaenous Coronary Intervention (PCI ACS)PergolidePericardial Effusion_TamponadePerimesencephalic Subarachnoid haemorrhagePerindoprilPerinephric abscessPerioperative AnticoagulationPeripartum cardiomyopathyPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)Peripheral Cannula InsertionPeripheral Nerve Palsies*Peripheral neuropathyPeripherally inserted central cathetersPernicious anaemiaPerthes disease (Osteochondritis of the Hip)PethidinePeutz-Jeghers syndromePhaeochromocytomaPhagocytesPharmacokinetic notesPharmacokineticsPharyngeal arch derivativesPhenobarbital sodiumPhenoxymethylpenicillin (Penicillin V)PhentolaminePhenylketonuria (PKU)Phenytoin (Dilantin)Philadelphia chromosomePhimosisPhobic disordersPhocomelia and ThalidomidePhosphorusPhysiology of visionPicolax - CitrafleetPilonidal Abscess (sinus)Pioglitazone (Thiazolidinediones)Pituitary AdenomaPituitary Anatomy and PhysiologyPituitary ApoplexyPityriasis or Tinea versicolor infectionsPityriasis roseaPivmecillinam (a penicillin antibiotic)Placenta praeviaPlacental abruptionPlantar fasciitisPlasmacytomaPlasmapharesisPlasmidsPleural effusionPleural tap (thoracentesis)Pneumococcal meningititisPneumoconiosisPneumocystis jirovecii pneumoniaPneumoniaPneumothoraxPoisons eliminated Haemodialysis - perfusionPoliomyelitisPolyarteritis nodosa (PAN)Polyarticular arthritisPolycystic Ovary syndromePolycythaemia Vera (primary polycythaemia)Polymerase chain reactionPolymorphic light eruptionPolymyalgia RheumaticaPolymyositisPolypharmacy Start CriteriaPolypharmacy Stop CriteriaPolyuriaPontine-Midbrain haemorrhagePorphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT)Porphyria TestingPortal HypertensionPositron Emission TomographyPost Menopausal BleedingPost Operative ManagementPost Partum ThyroiditisPost Polio SyndromePost SplenectomyPost Streptococcal/Infectious GlomerulonephritisPost Stroke Epilepsy (PSE)Post traumatic stress disorderPost-exposure prophylaxis with ImmunoglobulinsPosterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRESPosterior circulationPostpartum haemorrhagePotassium PhysiologyPralidoximePramipexole (Mirapexin)PrasugrelPravastatinPraxbind - IdarucizumabPraziquantelPrazosinPre-Operative AssessmentPreEclampsia, Eclapsmia and HELLPPrednisolonePrednisonePregabalinPremature LabourPremature MenopausePresbyacusisPrescribing InformationPrescribing in PregnancyPressure soresPrevotella (Bacteroides) melaninogenicaPriapismPrimaquinePrimary (Chronic simple) Open angle GlaucomaPrimary Biliary CirrhosisPrimary CNS LymphomaPrimary HyperparathyroidismPrimary Sclerosing CholangitisPrimary ciliary dyskinesiaPrimary hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome)Primary progressive aphasia (Dementia)ProbenicidProchlorperazine (Stemetil)ProcyclidineProgressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)ProlactinomaPropafenonePropanthelinePropionibacteriumPropofolPropranololPropylthiouracilProstate cancerProsthetic ValvesProtamine SulfateProtein C DeficiencyProtein S DeficiencyProtein losing enteropathyProtein p53Protein synthesisProteusProthrombin 20210A mutationProthrombin Complex Concentrates (PCC)Prothrombin time and CoagulationProthrombotic disordersProton Pump InhibitorsProximal myopathyPrucalopridePsammoma bodiesPseudohypoparathyroidismPseudomonas infection (Pseudomonas aeruginosa)Psoas AbscessPsoriasisPsoriatic arthritisPsychogenic PolydipsiaPubic Lice (Pediculosis Pubis)Pulmonary Alveolar ProteinosisPulmonary Arteriovenous malformationPulmonary EmbolismPulmonary Eosinophilia and CXR changesPulmonary HypertensionPulmonary Hypertension - PrimaryPulmonary RegurgitationPulmonary StenosisPulmonary hypertension - SecondaryPulse oximetryPutamenPutaminal HaemorrhagePyloric stenosis (Children)Pyoderma gangrenosumPyonephrosisPyrazinamidePyridostigminePyruvate Kinase deficiencyQuetiapineQuinineQuinine toxicityRabiesRadial PulseRadial nerveRadiation exposureRadioactive iodine (I 131)Radiofrequency Catheter AblationRadius and Ulna fractures and InjuriesRaloxifeneRaltegravirRamiprilRamsay Hunt syndromeRanitidineRanolazineRapid sequence intubation (RSI)Rapidly Progressive GlomerulonephritisRasagilineRasburicaseRaynaud's PhenomenonReactive arthritisRectal ProlapseRed cell aplasiaRed eyeRefeeding syndromeReferring to Level 2 or 3 care (ITU ICU HDU)Refractive ErrorsRefsum's diseaseRelapsing polychondritisRemdesvir (Veklury)Renal Artery StenosisRenal Papillary NecrosisRenal Physiology IRenal Stones (Nephrolithiasis)Renal TransplantationRenal Tubular AcidosisRenal Vein ThrombosisRenal cell carcinomaRenal physiologyRenin and Aldosterone Renin ratio (ARR)Renin-angiotensin systemRespiratory (Chest) infections and pneumoniaRespiratory - History TakingRespiratory AcidosisRespiratory AlkalosisRespiratory Anatomy and PhysiologyRespiratory Disease InvestigationsRespiratory Distress Syndrome (Neonates)Respiratory ExaminationRespiratory Examination - Finger ClubbingRespiratory Failure (hypoxia-hypercarbia)Resting membrane potentialRestless legs syndromeRestriction enzymesRestrictive CardiomyopathyResuscitation - Adult Bradycardia AlgorithmResuscitation - Adult Tachycardia AlgorithmResuscitation - Advanced Life SupportResuscitation - Basic Life Support ABCDEResuscitation - Choking AlgorithmResuscitation - Post Resuscitation AlgorithmReteplaseReticulocytesRetinal detachmentRetinitis pigmentosaRetinoblastomaRetinoidsRetroperitoneal fibrosisRett SyndromeReversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromeReye syndromeRhesus haemolytic diseaseRheumatoid arthritisRheumatology AutoantibodiesRheumatology Lab valuesRhodococcus equiRibavirinRicin ToxicityRickettsia (General Principles)Rickettsia africae (Tick Bite Fever)Rickettsia akariRickettsia conorii (Tick Bite Fever)Rickettsia prowazekiiRickettsia rickettsiiRickettsia tsutsugamushiRickettsia typhiRifampicin (Rifabutin Rifampin)RifaximinRilipivirine (Edurant) RVPRiluzole (Rilutek)Risedronate (Bisphosphonate)RisperidoneRitonavir (Norvir) RTVRituximab (Mabthera)Rivaroxaban (Xarelto)Rivastigmine (Exelon)Rocky Mountain Spotted FeverRocuroniumRotigotineRubella (German Measles) NotifiableSCL70 AntibodySMASH U Intracerebral Haemorrhage ClassificationSOCRATES mnemonicST segment changesSacubitril with ValsartanSalivary Gland DiseaseSalivary glandsSalmonella entericaSalmonella typhiSaquinivir (Invirase) SQVSarcoidosisSaxagliptin (Onglyza)ScabiesScarlet Fever (Scarlatina)SchistosomiasisSchizophreniaSchmidt's syndromeSciaticaSeborrheic DermatitisSecondary Brain TumoursSecondary MessengersSecondary dysmenorrhoeaSecondary hyperparathyroidismSedation and Analgesia on ITUSelective IgA deficiencySelective Serotonin reuptake Inhibitor toxicitySelective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)SelegilineSelenium deficiencySennaSeptic Shock and Sepsis 3Septic arthritisSepticaemiaSeronegative SpondyloarthropathiesSerotonin syndromeSerratiaSevelamerSevere combined immunodeficiency disordersSex Linked RecessiveSheehan's syndromeShigella characteristicsShigellosis (Bacillary Dysentery)Shock (General Assessment)Short Synacthen test (SST)Short and Tall stature Growth in ChildrenShoulder dislocationsSick Euthyroid SyndromeSickle Cell DiseaseSideroblastic AnaemiaSigmoid VolvulusSildenafil (Viagra)SilicosisSilver Trauma - Age over 65SimvastatinSinus BradycardiaSinus Node diseaseSinus TachycardiaSitagliptinSitosterolemiaSjogren's syndromeSkin and soft tissue infectionsSkull AnatomySleep physiologySlipped Upper Femoral Epiphysis (SUFE)Small Bowel IschaemiaSmall Bowel ObstructionSmall vessel diseaseSmallpoxSmokingSnake BitesSneddon SyndromeSodium BicarbonateSodium NitroprussideSodium PhysiologySodium PicosulfateSodium Thiopental - Sodium ThiopentoneSodium Valproate (Epilim Depakote)Sodium Zirconium Cyclosilicate (Lokelma)Soft tissue injuries (sprains, strains)SolifenacinSolitary Pulmonary NoduleSotalol HydrochlorideSpetzler-Martin Grading of AVMSpina BifidaSpinal Cord AnatomySpinal Cord Arteriovenous MalformationsSpinal Cord CompressionSpinal Cord HaematomaSpinal Cord InfarctionSpinal StenosisSpirometrySpironolactoneSpleenSplenic RuptureSpondylolisthesisSpontaneous Bacterial PeritonitisSpontaneous intracranial hypotensionSquamous Cell CarcinomaSt John's WortStaphylococcal InfectionsStaphylococcus aureusStaphylococcus epidermidisStaphylococcus saprophyticusStatinStatus Epilepticus (Epilepsy)Stavudine (Zerit) d4TStevens-Johnson SyndromeStiff Person SyndromeStrabismus (Lazy Eye)Streptobacillus moniliformisStreptococci - anaerobesStreptococcusStreptococcus agalactiaeStreptococcus milleriStreptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)Streptococcus pyogenesStreptococcus viridansStreptokinaseStreptomycinStridorStroke - Arterial Occlusion and clinical correlateStroke - Epidemiology and risk factorsStroke - General ManagementStroke - ImagingStroke ASPECTS scoringStroke CollateralsStroke Risk FactorsStroke ThrombolysisStrongyloides stercoralis (threadworm)StrontiumSubacute Sclerosing PanencephalitisSubacute ThyroiditisSubarachnoid HaemorrhageSubclavian Steal SyndromeSubclavian vein thrombosisSubdural haematomaSucralfateSudden Cardiac Death (SCD)Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)SuicideSulfasalazine - SulphasalazineSulphonamide (Sulphamethoxazole)SumatriptanSuperior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) SyndromeSuperior Sagittal Sinus ThrombosisSuperior vena caval obstruction syndromeSupracondylar Femur FracturesSupracondylar Humerus FracturesSupraspinatus tendonitisSupraventricular TachycardiaSurgical CricothyroidotomySurgical prophylaxisSurgical site infectionSusac syndromeSuxamethoniumSydenham's choreaSynchronised DC CardioversionSyncopeSyndrome X (Cardiology)Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH (SIADH) secretionSyndromes with Severe Cognitive IssuesSyphilisSyringobulbiaSyringomyeliaSystemic AmyloidosisSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)Systemic MastocytosisSystemic SclerosisT cellsTIMI scoreTMN Staging tumoursTNF receptor-associated periodic syndromeTORCH infectionsTURP Hyponatraemia syndromeTabes dorsalisTacrolimusTafamidisTakayasu arteritis (pulseless disease)Takotsubo CardiomyopathyTamoxifenTamsulosin (Flomax)Tanner Stages of Pubertal DevelopmentTardive DyskinesiasTay-Sachs diseaseTazocin (Tazobactam - 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Anatomy of the Muscles of the Head and Neck



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Muscles of the Head and Neck - Listed Alphabetically
Muscle Origin Insertion Action Innervation Artery Notes
anterior scalene anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of vertebrae C3-C6 scalene tubercle of the first rib elevates the first rib; flexes and laterally bends the neck brachial plexus, C5-C7 ascending cervical a., a branch of the thyrocervical trunk a muscle of inspiration; an important landmark of the neck; it is located between the subclavian vein and the subclavian artery; the roots of the brachial plexus pass posterior to it; the phrenic nerve crosses its anterior surface (Greek, scalene = uneven)
aryepiglottic apex (superior part) of the arytenoid cartilage epiglottis draws the epiglottis posteriorly and downward during swallowing inferior laryngeal nerve, from recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the of vagus (X) laryngeal br. of the superior thyroid a. the mucosa is raised by the underlying aryepiglottic m. to form the aryepiglottic fold
arytenoid, oblique muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage posterior surface of the contralateral arytenoid cartilage, near its apex draws arytenoid cartilages together, adducting the vocal folds inferior laryngeal nerve, from recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the of vagus (X) laryngeal br. of the superior thyroid a. the oblique arytenoid m. lies posterior to the transverse arytenoid m.; the arytenoideus is often considered to be one muscle with oblique and transverse fibers (
arytenoid, transverse posterior surface of the arytenoid cartilage posterior surface of the contralateral arytenoid cartilage draws arytenoid cartilages together, adducting the vocal folds inferior laryngeal nerve, from recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (X) laryngeal br. of the superior thyroid a. the transverse arytenoid m.lies anterior to the oblique arytenoid m.; the arytenoideus is often considered to be one muscle with oblique and transverse parts
auricular anterior: galea aponeurotica anterior to ear; superior: galea aponeurotica superior to ear; posterior: mastoid process auricle anteriorly, superiorly and posteriorly wiggle the ears anterior & superior: temporal branches of facial nerve (VII); posterior: posterior auricular branch of facial nerve (VII) superficial temporal a., posterior auricular a. the auricular muscles are derived from the mesenchyme of the second pharyngeal arch, as are the muscles of facial expression
buccinator pterygomandibular raphe, mandible, and the maxilla lateral to the molar teeth angle of mouth and the lateral portion of the upper and lower lips pulls the corner of mouth laterally; presses the cheek against the teeth buccal branches of the facial nerve (VII) facial a. although the buccinator is important in mastication, it is innervated by the buccal branch of the facial nerve and NOT by the buccal nerve from V3 (a sensory nerve) (Latin, buccinator = trumpeter)
chondroglossus medial side of the lesser horn and body of the hyoid bone ascends to blend with the intrinsic tongue musculature pulls the sides of the tongue down hypoglossal nerve (XII) lingual a. chondroglossus is often considered to be part of the hyoglossus muscle
ciliary meridional fibers: scleral spur; circular fibers: encircle the ciliary process meridional fibers: ciliary process; circular fibers: encircle the ciliary process relaxes the suspensory ligament of the lens parasympathetic fibers in the oculomotor nerve (III), synapsing in the ciliary ganglion ophthalmic a. relaxation of the suspensory ligament allows the lens to thicken for accommodation (near vision)
constrictor, inferior pharyngeal oblique line of the thyroid cartilage, lateral surface of cricoid cartilage midline pharyngeal raphe constricts pharyngeal cavity vagus (X), via the pharyngeal plexus, with aid from the superior laryngeal and recurrent laryngeal nerves ascending pharyngeal a., superior thyroid a., inferior thyroid a. the most external of the three pharyngeal constructor mm.
constrictor, middle pharyngeal lesser and greater horns of the hyoid bone and the inferior part of the stylohyoid ligament midline pharyngeal raphe constricts the pharyngeal cavity vagus (X), via the pharyngeal plexus ascending pharyngeal a. of the three pharyngeal constrictors, this one is intermediate in both superior/inferior position and depth
constrictor, superior pharyngeal medial pterygoid plate, pterygoid hamulus, pterygomandibular raphe, mylohyoid line of mandible pharyngeal tubercle and midline pharyngeal raphe constricts the pharyngeal cavity vagus (X), via the pharyngeal plexus ascending pharyngeal a. the most internal of the three pharyngeal constructor mm.
corrugator medial part of the supercillary arch skin of the medial half of the eyebrow pulls eyebrows together medially temporal branch of the facial nerve (VII) supratrochlear a. this muscle causes the furrowed brow of the worried look (Latin, corrugator= to wrinkle)
cricoarytenoid, lateral arch of the cricoid cartilage muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage draws the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage anteriorly, which pivots the arytenoid cartilage and adducts the vocal folds inferior laryngeal nerve, from the recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (X) superior laryngeal a., cricothyroid branch of the superior thyroid a. an antagonist of the posterior cricoarytenoid m.; the arteries that supply the larynx anastomose within the larynx to supply the mucous membranes and muscles
cricoarytenoid, posterior posterior surface of the lamina of the cricoid cartilage muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage draws the muscular process posteriorly, which pivots the arytenoid cartilage and abducts the vocal folds inferior laryngeal nerve, from the recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (X) superior laryngeal a., cricothyroid branch of the superior thyroid a. the posterior cricoarytenoid is the only ABductor of the vocal folds; the arteries that supply the larynx anastomose within the larynx to supply the mucous membranes and muscles
cricopharyngeus lateral surface of the cricoid cartilage midline pharyngeal raphe constricts the pharyngeal cavity and the entrance to the esophagus recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (X) cricothyroid branch of the superior thyroid a., ascending pharyngeal a. cricopharyngeus represents the lowest fibers of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor; it is continuous with the esophagus below and marks the beginning of it
cricothyroid arch of the cricoid cartilage inferior border of the thyroid cartilage draws the thyroid cartilage forward, lengthening the vocal ligaments external branch of superior laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (X) cricothyroid branch of the superior thyroid a. this is the only intrinsic muscle of the larynx that is not supplied by the recurrent laryngeal n.; ALL other laryngeal muscles are innervated by recurrent laryngeal nerve, via its inferior laryngeal branch
depressor anguli oris oblique line of the mandible angle of the mouth pulls the corner of the mouth downward marginal mandibular & buccal branches of the facial nerve (VII) inferior labial branch of the facial a., mental a. a "frown" muscle
depressor labii inferioris anterior surface of the mandible skin of the lower lip depresses the lower lip marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve (VII) inferior labial branch of the facial a., mental a. this muscle is used to bare the lower incisor teeth
depressor septi maxilla near the midline above the incisor teeth nasal septum depresses the nasal septum; involved in flaring the nostrils buccal branch of facial nerve (VII) superior labial branch of the facial a. depressor septi is considered a part of the nasalis m.
digastric anterior belly: digastric fossa of the mandible; posterior belly: mastoid notch of the temporal bone body of the hyoid via a fibrous loop over an intermediate tendon elevates the hyoid bone; depresses the mandible anterior belly: mylohyoid nerve, from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V); posterior belly: facial nerve (VII) anterior belly: submental a.; posterior belly: occipital a. the digastric m. forms two sides of the submandibular triangle; it is formed from mesenchyme derived from the first two pharyngeal arches, hence its dual innervation
dilator pupillae outer margin of iris inner margin of iris dilates the pupil sympathetic fibers via short ciliary nerves, synapsing in superior cervical sympathetic ganglion ophthalmic a. none
epicranius frontalis: galea aponeurotica; occipitalis: superior nuchal line frontalis: skin of the eyebrows; occipitalis: galea aponeurotica elevates the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead frontalis: temporal branches of the facial nerve (VII); occipitalis: posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve (VII)

frontalis: supraorbital and supratrochlear aa.; occipitalis: occipital a.

the frontalis and occipitalis muscles are two bellies of the epicranius muscle; also known as: occipitofrontalis m.
frontalis galea aponeurotica skin of the eyebrow elevates the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead temporal branches of the facial nerve (VII) supraorbital and supratrochlear aa. frontalis is the anterior belly of the epicranius muscle
genioglossus mental spine on the inner aspect of the mental symphysis fans out to insert into the tongue from the tip to the base protrudes the tongue (inferior fibers); depresses tongue (middle fibers) hypoglossal nerve (XII) lingual a. an extrinsic muscle of the tongue; XII innervates all tongue muscles except palatoglossus [innervated by vagus (X), as are most of the palate and pharynx muscles]; genioglossus is used to test the function of cranial nerve XII
geniohyoid mental spines of the mandible body of the hyoid bone elevates the hyoid bone; depresses the mandible ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve C1 via fibers carried by the hypoglossal nerve lingual a., submental a. thyrohyoid and geniohyoid receive ansa cervicalis fibers that travel with the hypoglossal nerve distal to the superior limb of the ansa cervicalis
hyoglossus upper border of the greater horn of the hyoid and body of the hyoid bone spreads out into the intrinsic muscles of the tongue depresses the sides of the tongue; retracts the tongue hypoglossal nerve (XII) lingual a. an extrinsic muscle of the tongue
inferior oblique floor of the orbit lateral to the lacrimal groove sclera on the inferior surface of the eyeball elevates and abducts the corneal part of the eye; rotates the superior pole of the iris laterally; when the eye is adducted, this muscle elevates the cornea oculomotor nerve (III), inferior division ophthalmic a. clinicians examining the eye will ask the patient to look toward the bridge of the nose to test the function of this muscle
inferior pharyngeal constrictor oblique line of the thyroid cartilage, lateral surface of cricoid cartilage midline pharyngeal raphe constricts pharyngeal cavity vagus (X), via the pharyngeal plexus, with aid from the superior laryngeal and recurrent laryngeal nerves ascending pharyngeal a., superior thyroid a., inferior thyroid a. the most external of the three pharyngeal constructor mm.
inferior rectus common tendinous ring at the apex of the orbit sclera on the inferior surface of the eyeball depresses and adducts the corneal part of the eyeball; rotates the superior pole of the iris laterally oculomotor nerve (III), inferior division ophthalmic a. because this muscle approaches the eyeball from a medial direction, it has a rotational action on the iris
lateral cricoarytenoid arch of the cricoid cartilage muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage draws the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage anteriorly, which pivots the arytenoid cartilage and adducts the vocal folds inferior laryngeal nerve, from the recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (X) superior laryngeal a., cricothyroid branch of the superior thyroid a. an antagonist of the posterior cricoarytenoid m.; the arteries that supply the larynx anastomose within the larynx to supply the mucous membranes and muscles
lateral pterygoid superior head: greater wing of the sphenoid bone; inferior head: lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate superior head: capsule and & articular disk of the temporomandibular joint; inferior head: neck of the mandible protracts the mandible; opens the mouth; active in grinding actions of chewing lateral pterygoid branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V) pterygoid branch of the maxillary a. the only one of the muscles of mastication that opens the mouth; the superior head of lateral pterygoid is sometimes called sphenomeniscus due to its insertion into the disc of the temporomandibular joint (Greek, pterygoid = wing-shaped)
lateral rectus common tendinous ring at the apex of the orbit sclera on the lateral surface of the eyeball abducts the corneal part of the eyeball abducens nerve (VI) ophthalmic a. loss of function of the abducens nerve will cause the eye to be abducted
levator anguli oris canine fossa of the maxilla angle (corner) of the mouth elevates the angle of the mouth buccal branch of the facial nerve (VII) infraorbital a., superior labial branch of the facial a. a "smile" muscle
levator labii superioris inferior margin of the orbit skin of the upper lip elevates the upper lip buccal branch of the facial nerve (VII) infraorbital a., superior labial branch of the facial a. levator labii superioris is used to bare the upper incisor teeth, as in a sneer (Latin, levator = to lift + labial = lips)
levator labii superioris alaque nasi frontal process of the maxilla ala of the nose and skin of the upper lip elevates the upper lip and flares the nostril buccal branch of the facial nerve (VII) infraorbital a., superior labial branch of the facial a. (Latin, levator = to lift + labial = lips)
levator palpebrae superioris apex of the orbit above the optic canal skin and fascia of upper eyelid and the superior tarsal plate elevates the upper eyelid oculomotor nerve (III) and sympathetics (to the superior tarsal portion) ophthalmic a. fibers inserting into the superior tarsal plate are called superior tarsal muscle and are smooth muscle; lesion of the sympathetic supply causes slight ptosis (drooping of the eyelid) (Latin, levator = to lift + palpebrae = eyelid)
levator scapulae transverse processes of C1-4 vertebrae medial border of the scapula from the superior angle to the spine elevates scapula dorsal scapular nerve (C5); the upper part of the muscle receives branches of C3 & C4 spinal nerves dorsal scapular a. named for its action (Latin, levator = to lift)
levator veli palatini apex of the petrous part of the temporal bone and the medial surface of the auditory tube cartilage muscles and fascia of the soft palate; palatine aponeurosis elevates the soft palate vagus nerve (X) via the pharyngeal plexus ascending pharyngeal a. a derivative of the fourth pharyngeal arch (Latin, levator = to lift)
linguae, longitudinalis within tongue within tongue near the apex shapes the tongue for speech and mastication hypoglossal nerve (XII) lingual a. an intrinsic muscle of the tongue; longitudinalis has superior and inferior subdivisions that span the length of the tongue
linguae, transversus within tongue within tongue compresses the sides of the tongue; shapes the tongue for speech and mastication hypoglossal nerve (XII) lingual a. an intrinsic muscle of the tongue whose fibers run transversely
linguae, verticalis within tongue within tongue shapes the tongue for speech and mastication hypoglossal nerve (XII) lingual a. an intrinsic muscle of the tongue whose fibers run superoinferiorly
longus capitis anterior tubercles of vertebrae C3-6 basilar portion of the occipital bone flex the head and neck cervical plexus, ventral primary rami of spinal nerves C1-4 deep cervical a. none
longus colli anterior tubercles and anterior surfaces of the bodies of vertebrae C3-T3 anterior arch of atlas, anterior tubercles of C5-6, anterior surfaces of bodies of vertebrae C2-4 flex neck, rotate and laterally bend neck cervical and brachial plexus, C2-7 deep cervical a. none
masseter zygomatic arch and zygomatic bone lateral surface of the ramus and angle of the mandible elevates the mandible nerve to the masseter, from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V) masseteric branch of the maxillary a. (Greek, masseter = the chewer)
medial pterygoid medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate, pyramidal process of the palatine bone, tuberosity of the maxilla medial surface of the ramus and angle of the mandible elevates and protracts the mandible medial pterygoid branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V) pterygoid branch of the maxillary a. this muscle mirrors the masseter m. in position and action with the ramus of the mandible between the two mm. (Greek, pterygoid = wing-shaped)
medial rectus common tendinous ring at the apex of the orbit sclera on the medial surface of the eyeball adducts the corneal part of the eyeball oculomotor nerve (III) (inferior division) ophthalmic a. this muscle directly opposes the action of the lateral rectus m.
mentalis anterior surface of the mandible near the mental symphysis (midline) skin of the chin elevates the lower lip and skin of chin marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve (VII) mental a., inferior labial branch of the facial a.
middle pharyngeal constrictor lesser and greater horns of the hyoid bone and the inferior part of the stylohyoid ligament midline pharyngeal raphe constricts the pharyngeal cavity vagus (X), via the pharyngeal plexus ascending pharyngeal a. of the three pharyngeal constrictors, this one is intermediate in both superior/inferior position and depth
middle scalene posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of vertebrae C2-C7 upper surface of the first rib behind the subclavian artery elevates the first rib; flexes and laterally bends the neck brachial plexus, C3-C8 ascending cervical a. a muscle of respiration (inspiratory); also called scalenus medius; penetrated by the dorsal scapular n. and long thoracic n. (Greek, scalene = uneven)
musculus uvulae posterior nasal spine mucosa of the uvula shortens the uvula vagus nerve (X) via pharyngeal plexus lesser palatine a. the soft palate and uvula resist the upward pressure of the tongue during swallowing
mylohyoid mylohyoid line of mandible midline raphe and body of the hyoid bone elevates the hyoid bone and the tongue; depresses the mandible mylohyoid nerve from the inferior alveolar nerve, a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V) mylohyoid branch of the inferior alveolar a. the nerve to mylohyoid also innervates the anterior belly of digastric m.; both muscles are derivatives of the second pharygneal arch
nasalis maxilla above the incisor teeth and the canine teeth ala of the nose and midline aponeurosis flattens the nose, flare the nostrils buccal branch of the facial nerve (VII) superior labial branch of the facial a. nasalis has two subsidiary parts: nasalis pars alaris and pars transversa
nasalis pars alaris maxilla above the canine teeth ala of the nose flares the nostrils buccal branch of facial nerve (VII) superior labial branch of the facial a. a subdivision of the nasalis m. (Latin, pars = a part)
nasalis pars transversa maxilla above the incisor teeth midline aponeurosis flattens the nose buccal branch of facial nerve (VII) superior labial branch of the facial a. a subdivision of the nasalis m. (Latin, pars = a part)
oblique arytenoid muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage posterior surface of the contralateral arytenoid cartilage, near its apex draws arytenoid cartilages together, adducting the vocal folds inferior laryngeal nerve, from recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the of vagus (X) laryngeal br. of the superior thyroid a. the oblique arytenoid m. lies posterior to the transverse arytenoid m.; the arytenoideus is often considered to be one muscle with oblique and transverse fibers
oblique, inferior floor of the orbit lateral to the lacrimal groove sclera on the inferior surface of the eyeball elevates and abducts the corneal part of the eye; rotates the superior pole of the iris laterally; when the eye is adducted, this muscle elevates the cornea oculomotor nerve (III), inferior division ophthalmic a. clinicians examining the eye will ask the patient to look toward the bridge of the nose to test the function of this muscle
oblique, superior apex of the orbit above the optic canal sclera on the posterior superior surface of the eyeball depresses and abducts the eyeball; rotates the superior pole of the iris medially trochlear nerve (IV) ophthalmic a. passes through a fibrocartilagenous pulley known as the trochlea; when the eye is adducted, this muscle moves the cornea inferiorly
occipitalis superior nuchal line galea aponeurotica pulls the scalp posteriorly; elevates the eyebrows posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve (VII) occipital a. occipitalis is the posterior belly of the epicranius muscle
occipitofrontalis frontalis: galea aponeurotica; occipitalis: superior nuchal line frontalis: skin of the eyebrows; occipitalis: galea aponeurotica elevates the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead frontalis: temporal branches of the facial nerve (VII); occipitalis: posterior auricular branch of the facial nerve (VII)

frontalis: supraorbital and supratrochlear aa.; occipitalis: occipital a.

the frontalis and occipitalis muscles are two bellies of the occipitofrontalis muscle; also known as: epicranius m.
omohyoid inferior belly: upper border of the scapula medial to the scapular notch; superior belly: intermediate tendon inferior belly: intermediate tendon; superior belly: lower border of the hyoid bone lateral to the sternohyoid insertion depresses/stabilizes the hyoid bone ansa cervicalis transverse cervical a. the intermediate tendon of omohyoid is tethered to the clavicle by a fascial sling
orbicularis oculi orbital part: medial orbital margin and the medial palpebral ligament; palpebral part: medial palpebral ligament orbital part: skin of the lateral cheek; palpebral part: lateral palpebral raphe closes the eyelids temporal & zygomatic branches of the facial nerve (VII) supraorbital a., supratrochlear a., infraorbital a., angular branch of the facial a. activated involuntarily in the blink reflex; the palpebral part is active in normal blinking and the orbital part is used to forcefully close the eye
orbicularis oris skin and fascia of lips and the area surrounding the lips skin and fascia of the lips purses the lips buccal branch of the facial nerve (VII) superior and inferior labial branches of the facial a., mental a., infraorbital a. the "kissing" muscle
palatoglossus palatine aponeurosis side of the tongue, entering it from above elevates and retracts the tongue vagus nerve (X) via the pharyngeal plexus tonsilar branch of the facial a., ascending pharyngeal a. although palatoglossus sounds like a tongue muscle (and would therefore be innervated by XII), it is a palatal muscle innervated by X
palatopharyngeus posterior margin of the bony palate and the palatine aponeurosis posterior wall of the pharynx and the posterior margin of the thyroid cartilage elevates the larynx vagus nerve (X) via pharyngeal plexus ascending pharyngeal a. palatopharyngeus is part of the inner longitudinal muscle layer of the pharynx
platysma fascia overlying the pectoralis major and deltoid muscles inferior border of the mandible and skin of lower face draws the corners of the mouth down; it aids in depression of the mandible cervical branch of the facial nerve (VII) facial a. platysma is derived from the mesenchyme of the second pharyngeal arch (Greek, platysma = a flat plate)
posterior cricoarytenoid posterior surface of the lamina of the cricoid cartilage muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage draws the muscular process posteriorly, which pivots the arytenoid cartilage and abducts the vocal folds inferior laryngeal nerve, from the recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve (X) superior laryngeal a., cricothyroid branch of the superior thyroid a. the posterior cricoarytenoid is the only ABductor of the vocal folds; the arteries that supply the larynx anastomose within the larynx to supply the mucous membranes and muscles
posterior scalene posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of vertebrae C5-C7 lateral surface of the second rib elevates the second rib; flexes and laterally bends the neck brachial plexus, C7-C8 ascending cervical a. a muscle of respiration (inspiratory); it is the longest of the scalene muscles (Greek, scalene = uneven)
procerus nasal bone skin between the eyebrows depresses the medial corners of the eyebrows temporal branch of the facial nerve (VII) supratrochlear a. (Latin, procerus = long and streched out)
pterygoid, lateral superior head: greater wing of the sphenoid bone; inferior head: lateral surface of the lateral pterygoid plate superior head: capsule and & articular disk of the temporomandibular joint; inferior head: neck of the mandible protracts the mandible; opens the mouth; active in grinding actions of chewing lateral pterygoid branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V) pterygoid branch of the maxillary a. the only one of the muscles of mastication that opens the mouth; the superior head of lateral pterygoid is sometimes called sphenomeniscus due to its insertion into the disc of the temporomandibular joint (Greek, pterygoid = wing-shaped)
pterygoid, medial medial surface of the lateral pterygoid plate, pyramidal process of the palatine bone, tuberosity of the maxilla medial surface of the ramus and angle of the mandible elevates and protracts the mandible medial pterygoid branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V) pterygoid branch of the maxillary a. this muscle mirrors the masseter m. in position and action with the ramus of the mandible between the two mm. (Greek, pterygoid = wing-shaped)
pupillae, dilator outer margin of iris inner margin of iris dilates the pupil sympathetic fibers via short ciliary nerves, synapsing in superior cervical sympathetic ganglion ophthalmic a. none
pupillae, sphincter encircles iris encircles iris constricts the pupil parasympathetic fibers of oculomotor nerve (III), synapsing in ciliary ganglion ophthalmic a. none
rectus capitis anterior lateral mass of atlas basilar portion of occipital bone flexes the head ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve C1 deep cervical a. none
rectus capitis lateralis transverse process of atlas occipital bone anterolateral to foramen magnum laterally bends the head ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve C1 deep cervical a. none
rectus, inferior common tendinous ring at the apex of the orbit sclera on the inferior surface of the eyeball depresses and adducts the corneal part of the eyeball; rotates the superior pole of the iris laterally oculomotor nerve (III), inferior division ophthalmic a. because this muscle approaches the eyeball from a medial direction, it has a rotational action on the iris
rectus, lateral common tendinous ring at the apex of the orbit sclera on the lateral surface of the eyeball abducts the corneal part of the eyeball abducens nerve (VI) ophthalmic a. loss of function of the abducens nerve will cause the eye to be abducted
rectus, medial common tendinous ring at the apex of the orbit sclera on the medial surface of the eyeball adducts the corneal part of the eyeball oculomotor nerve (III) (inferior division) ophthalmic a. this muscle directly opposes the action of the lateral rectus m.
rectus, superior common tendinous ring at the apex of the orbit sclera on the superior surface of the eyeball elevates and adducts the eyeball; rotates the superior pole of the iris medially oculomotor nerve (III), superior division ophthalmic a. because this muscle approaches the eye from a medial position, it causes the iris to rotate medially
risorius fascia of the lateral cheek skin of the angle (corner) of the mouth draws the corner of the mouth laterally buccal branches of the facial nerve (VII) transverse facial a., facial a. risorius is active in expressions of mirth (Latin, risorius = to laugh)
salpingopharyngeus inferior surface of the anteromedial end of the auditory tube cartilage pharyngeal wall and superior border of the thyroid cartilage along with the palatopharyngeus m. elevates the larynx vagus nerve (X) via the pharyngeal plexus ascending pharyngeal a. like other muscles of the pharyngeal wall, salpingopharyngeus is derived from the fourth pharyngeal arch
scalene, anterior anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of vertebrae C3-C6 scalene tubercle of the first rib elevates the first rib; flexes and laterally bends the neck brachial plexus, C5-C7 ascending cervical a., a branch of the thyrocervical trunk a muscle of inspiration; an important landmark of the neck; it is located between the subclavian vein and the subclavian artery; the roots of the brachial plexus pass posterior to it; the phrenic nerve crosses its anterior surface (Greek, scalene = uneven)
scalene, middle posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of vertebrae C2-C7 upper surface of the first rib behind the subclavian artery elevates the first rib; flexes and laterally bends the neck brachial plexus, C3-C8 ascending cervical a. a muscle of respiration (inspiratory); also called scalenus medius; penetrated by the dorsal scapular n. and long thoracic n. (Greek, scalene = uneven)
scalene, posterior posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of vertebrae C5-C7 lateral surface of the second rib elevates the second rib; flexes and laterally bends the neck brachial plexus, C7-C8 ascending cervical a. a muscle of respiration (inspiratory); it is the longest of the scalene muscles (Greek, scalene = uneven)
sphenomeniscus greater wing of the sphenoid capsule and articular disk of the temporomandibular joint pulls the articular disk forward in opening of the mouth lateral pterygoid branch of mandibular division of trigeminal nerve (V) pterygoid branch of the maxillary a. sphenomeniscus is another name for the superior belly of the lateral pterygoid m.
sphincter pupillae encircles iris encircles iris constricts the pupil parasympathetic fibers of oculomotor nerve (III), synapsing in ciliary ganglion ophthalmic a. none
splenius ligamentum nuchae and spines C7-T6 capitis: mastoid process & superior nuchal line laterally; cervicis: posterior tubercles of C1-3 extends and laterally bends neck and head; rotates head to same side dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C2-6 supplied segmentally by: deep cervical a., posterior intercostal aa. it gets its name from its broad, flat shape (Greek, splenius = a bandage)
stapedius walls of the pyramidal eminence neck of the stapes dampens vibration of the stapes facial nerve (VII) anterior tympanic a. entirely enclosed in bone, except for its tendon; a derivative of the second pharyngeal arch
sternocleidomastoid sternal head: anterior surface of the manubrium; clavicular head: medial 1/3rd of the clavicle mastoid process and lateral 1/2 of the superior nuchal line draws the mastoid process down toward the same side which causes the chin to turn up toward the opposite side; acting together, the muscles of the two sides flex the neck spinal accessory nerve (XI), with sensory supply from C2 & C3 (for proprioception) sternocleidomastoid branch of the occipital a. carotid sheath structures lie deep to it
sternohyoid posterior surfaces of both the manubrium and sternal end of the clavicle lower border of the hyoid bone, medial to the omohyoid m. insertion depresses/stabilizes the hyoid bone ansa cervicalis superior thyroid a. sternohyoid overlies the sternothyroid and thyrohyoid mm.
sternothyroid posterior surface of the manubrium below the origin of the sternohyoid m. oblique line of the thyroid cartilage depresses/stabilizes the hyoid bone ansa cervicalis superior thyroid a. sternothyroid lies deep to the sternohyoid m.
styloglossus anterior side of the styloid process posterolateral side of the tongue retracts and elevates the tongue hypoglossal nerve (XII) ascending pharyngeal a., ascending palatine branch of the facial a. an extrinsic muscle of the tongue
stylohyoid posterior side of the styloid process splits around the intermediate tendon of the digastric m. to insert on the body of the hyoid bone elevates and retracts the hyoid bone facial nerve (VII) ascending pharyngeal a. facial nerve innervates both the stylohyoid m. and the posterior belly of the digastric m. shortly after exiting from the stylomastoid foramen
stylopharyngeus medial side of the styloid process superior border of the thyroid cartilage and also into the pharyngeal wall elevates the larynx glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) ascending pharyngeal a. stylopharyngeus, the only muscle innervated by IX, is the only muscle of the pharyngeal wall NOT innervated by the vagus (X) nerve; it is a derivative of the third pharyngeal arch
superior oblique apex of the orbit above the optic canal sclera on the posterior superior surface of the eyeball depresses and abducts the eyeball; rotates the superior pole of the iris medially trochlear nerve (IV) ophthalmic a. passes through a fibrocartilagenous pulley known as the trochlea; when the eye is adducted, this muscle moves the cornea inferiorly
superior pharyngeal constrictor medial pterygoid plate, pterygoid hamulus, pterygomandibular raphe, mylohyoid line of mandible pharyngeal tubercle and midline pharyngeal raphe constricts the pharyngeal cavity vagus (X), via the pharyngeal plexus ascending pharyngeal a. the most internal of the three pharyngeal constructor mm.
superior rectus common tendinous ring at the apex of the orbit sclera on the superior surface of the eyeball elevates and adducts the eyeball; rotates the superior pole of the iris medially oculomotor nerve (III), superior division ophthalmic a. because this muscle approaches the eye from a medial position, it causes the iris to rotate medially
temporalis temporal fossa and the temporal fascia coronoid process of the mandible and the anterior surface of the ramus of the mandible elevates the mandible; retracts the mandible (posterior fibers) anterior and posterior deep temporal nerves from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V) anterior and posterior deep temporal aa. a powerful chewing muscle; a derivative of the first pharyngeal arch
tensor tympani cartilagenous auditory tube and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone which lies adjacent to it manubrium of the malleus dampens vibrations of the tympanic membrane medial pterygoid branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V) superior tympanic branch of the middle meningeal a. V3 innervates both tensor muscles of the head (tympani and veli palatini) which are derivatives of the first pharyngeal arch