|Adult Resus:Acute Anaphylaxis
|Adult Resus:Basic Life Support
|Adult Resus: Advanced Life Support
|Adult Resus: Obstetric Cardiac Arrest
|Newborn/Child Resus: All
|Hypovolaemic or Haemorrhagic Shock
|Septic Shock and Sepsis
|Shock (General Assessment)
|Toxic Shock Syndrome
|Resus:Post Resuscitation Algorithm
|Resus:Acute Severe Asthma
Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening, generalised or systemic
hypersensitivity reaction. Adrenaline 0.5 mg (0.5 ml) IM of 1:1000 is potentially life-saving and must therefore promptly be administered as the first-line treatment for the emergency management of anaphylaxis. It is given through clothes if needed into the latera
Anaphylaxis : the clues are
- Sudden onset of Airway and/or
- Breathing and/or Circulation problems and usually skin changes (e.g. itchy rash)
- First thing to do is Call for HELP: Resuscitation team/MET call or ambulance
|Initial Management Summary: Resuscitation UK|
- Remove trigger if possible (e.g. stop any infusion)
- Lie patient flat (with or without legs elevated)
- A sitting position may make breathing easier
- If pregnant, lie on left side
- Give IM Adrenaline (Epinephrine 1:1000) into lateral thigh
- Adult or Child Age>12 yo: IM 0.5mL/0.5 mg
- Child Age 6-12 yo 0.3mL/0.3 mg
- Child Age < 6 yo 0.15 mg/0.15 ml
- Child 6 months to 6 years: 150 micrograms IM (0.15 mL)
- Child <6 months: 100–150 micrograms IM (0.1–0.15 mL)
- High-flow oxygen (15 L/min) and preserve airway. Lie flat.
- If no response after 5 minutes
- Repeat IM Adrenaline (Epinephrine 1:1000) into lateral thigh
- IV fluids 500-1000 ml N-Saline. Children 20 ml/kg of Crystalloid
- Salbutamol (Albuterol in US) 5 mg neb if wheeze. Senior help if fails to respond
- Send Mast cell tryptase sample, CXR, ECG, ABG if needed
- Not included in current Guidelines
- Hydrocortisone 200 mg IM or slow IV
- Chlorphenamine 10 mg IM or slow IV
|Refractory Anaphlaxis: No improvement resp/cardiovascular despite 2 x IM Adrenaline
- Give rapid IV fluid bolus e.g. 0.9% sodium chloride
- Start adrenaline infusion: Adrenaline essential. Start a peripheral low-dose IV adrenaline infusion
- 1 mg (1 mL of 1 mg/mL [1:1000]) adrenaline in 100 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride
- Prime and connect with an infusion pump via a dedicated line. DO NOT ‘piggy back’ on to another infusion line. Avoid same side as a BP cuff.
- In both adults and children, start at 0.5–1.0 mL/kg/hour,
and titrate according to clinical response
- Continuous monitoring/observation. High BP suggests adrenaline overdose
- Partial upper airway obstruction/stridor: Neb adrenaline (5mL of 1mg/mL)
- Total upper airway obstruction: Expert help needed, follow difficult airway algorit
- Breathing: Oxygenation is more important than intubation
- If apnoeic (not breathing)
- Bag mask ventilation
- Consider tracheal intubation
- Severe/persistent bronchospasm
- Salbutamol/ipratropium neb with O2
- Consider IV bolus and/or infusion of salbutamol or aminophylline
- Inhalational anaesthesia
- Give further fluid boluses (glucose-free crystalloid
(e.g. Hartmann’s Solution, Plasma-Lyte®) and titrate to response
- Child 10 mL/kg per bolus
- Adult 500–1000 mL per bolus. Large volumes may be required (3–5 L in adults)
- Place arterial cannula for continuous BP monitoring and central venous access
- If refractory to Adrenaline infusion consider adding a second vasopressor in addition to adrenaline infusion
- Noradrenaline, vasopressin or metaraminol
- In patients on beta-blockers, consider glucagon
- Consider extracorporeal life support
- Cardiac arrest – follow ALS ALGORITHM
- Start chest compressions early
- Use IV or IO adrenaline bolus (cardiac arrest protocol)
- Aggressive fluid resuscitation
- Consider prolonged resuscitation/extracorporeal CPR
Treat if there are any Life threatening ABC features: Hoarse voice, stridor, increased work of breathing, wheeze, fatigue, cyanosis, SpO2 <94%, Low blood pressure, signs of shock, confusion, reduced consciousness. Rash alone is not listed but be observant for ongoing changes.
- Anaphylaxis is a potentially fatal reaction to an allergen.
- Adrenaline given IM improves prognosis and can be life-saving.
- Adrenaline IM should be given where there is clinical suspicion of anaphylaxis.
- The key signs are hypotension or skin changes or wheeze or stridor.
- Always summon senior help such as 999 immediately if no rapid recovery.
- In hospital call for the medical emergency team.
- Never give IV Adrenaline (Epinephrine) in anaphylaxis.
- IV Adrenaline should only be used in a cardiac arrest protocol.
- With anaphylaxis there is Mast cell degranulation due to antigen cross linking IgE on cell surface.
- This leads to the systemic release of histamine which binds to H1, H2, H3 and H4 receptors.
- There is then a massive release of cytokines and chemokines.
- Requires prior exposure and formation of allergen specific IgE.
- Increased post capillary venule permeability oedema.
- Vascular smooth muscle relaxation - hypotension
- Causative agents, Drugs e.g. Penicillin, Radiological contrast media.
- Insect stings, Eggs, Fish, Peanuts, Latex.
- Giving blood products e.g. IVIG to those with selective IgA deficiency
- Feeling faint, breathless, wheezing, stridor, clammy skin, confusion and anxiety
- Collapsing or losing consciousness, Colic and diarrhoea and vomiting
- Abdominal pain, flushing, Wheeze, Urticaria (not with C1 esterase deficiency)
- Facial, lips swell, Laryngeal oedema can compromise airway - stridor
- Septic shock: warm, vasodilated. Blood cultures, FBC, CRP, lactate if sepsis considered. IV fluids.
- Scombroidosis (Histamine)
- Systemic mastocytosis
- Faint (vasovagal episode).
- Panic attack.
- Breath-holding episode in child.
- Idiopathic (non-allergic) urticaria or angioedema.
- Hereditary angioedema.
- FBC, U&E, LFTs, Lactate, ABG may be needed
- Mast cell tryptase (level reflects the degree of hypotension) should be sent within 1 hour and 24 hours (or at follow up). It may not be elevated in food allergy. Send 10 mL of clotted blood should be taken within 60 min of the reaction for confirmation of the diagnosis: e.g. by measurement of the mast cell tryptase. Serum should be separated and stored at -20°C.
- Later at an Immunology clinic - Allergen skin testing, RAST - identifies specific IgE
- Mistakes in cross matching or patient identification and giving the wrong blood
- Avoiding Penicillin or other drugs when allergic
- Avoiding food allergies
- Having access to an epipen
- Assess ABCDE. Lay patient supine and raise legs/end of the bed if anaphylaxis possible.
- Stop causative drug or infusion or blood product, remove bee sting.
- Get senior help quickly. If airway issues get the anaesthetic team. HR, BP, Telemetry, sats
- Give Oxygen High flow 15L/min target 94-98%. Non-rebreather mask. May have to give less if COPD
- Give Adrenaline (Epinephrine in US) 0.5 ml of 1 in 1000 stat IM. May be repeated at 5-minute intervals depending on response. Give IM into the anterolateral aspect of the middle third of the thigh using a needle long enough to ensure the Adrenaline (Epinephrine) is given into the muscle. This can be given through clothes. Do not give IV Adrenaline unless cardiac arrest.
- IV 500-1000 mls stat 0.9% N-Saline and titrate to BP and clinical status. Some may need several litres. Watch for overload in an older patient
Deprecated Treatments now
- Salbutamol (Albuterol in US) 5mg and nebulise with oxygen as needed if patient wheezy
- Hydrocortisone200 mg stat and 8-hourly as needed IV/IM and may be used as they may reduce the risk of late-phase respiratory symptoms
- Antihistamine Chlorphenamine 10 mg stat IV (UK) or Benadryl/Diphenhydramine 25-50 mg stat IV(USA) and Ranitidine may also be given. Systemic H1-(& H2)-antihistamines may relieve cutaneous symptoms of anaphylaxis
- Monitor for 6-12 hours following full recovery to ensure no late reactions. Such biphasic responses can occur. Before discharge, the risk of future reactions should be assessed and an adrenaline auto-injector should be prescribed to those at risk of recurrence. Ensure if given Epipens also instructed how to use it. Arrange or advise referral to a specialist for allergy clinic or immunology opinion and identification of cause and antigen avoidance.