DBS treats primarily LD-responsive symptoms, and the benefits of DBS are sustained for several years
- Surgical treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) was described as early as 1940 and, until recently, had focused on ablative procedures of the thalamus and globus pallidus pars interna (GPi)
- These surgical treatments became less common with the introduction of levodopa (LD) but later reemerged as popular approaches in the 1990s.
- Rapidly replaced in the late 1990s by deep brain stimulation (DBS), mainly as a result of concerns for adverse effects resulting from bilateral lesions as well as the irreversible effects resulting from poorly placed lesions.
- Furthermore, a new target, the subthalamic nuclei (STN) was identified to be an effective target and quickly became the most common site for DBS electrode placement
- Deep brain stimulation is currently the surgical treatment of
choice in appropriately selected patients with substantial
motor complications when optimized medical treatment has
failed in treating motor symptoms (such as motor fluctuations
- Thalamic deep brain stimulation may be considered as an option in people with PD who
predominantly have a severe disabling tremor.
- Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or the globus
pallidus interna is effective against motor fluctuations and dyskinesia
- Medtronic DBS Therapy for Parkinson Disease: Bilateral stimulation of the internal globus pallidus (GPi) or the subthalamic nucleus (STN) using Medtronic DBS Therapy for Parkinson's Disease is indicated for adjunctive therapy in reducing some of the symptoms in individuals with levodopa-responsive Parkinson's disease of at least 4 years duration that is not adequately controlled with medication, including motor complications of recent onset (from 4 months to 3 years) or motor complications of longer-standing duration.
- Medtronic DBS Therapy for Tremor:
Unilateral thalamic stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) using Medtronic DBS Therapy for Tremor is indicated for the suppression of tremor in the upper extremity. The system is intended for patients who are diagnosed with essential tremor or Parkinsonian tremor not adequately controlled by medications and where the tremor constitutes a significant functional disability.
- Medtronic DBS Therapy for Dystonia*:
Unilateral or bilateral stimulation of the internal globus pallidus (GPi) or the subthalamic nucleus (STN) using Medtronic DBS Therapy for Dystonia is indicated as an aid in the management of chronic, intractable (drug refractory) primary dystonia, including generalized and/or segmental dystonia, hemidystonia, and cervical dystonia (torticollis), in patients seven years of age or above.
- Medtronic Reclaim DBS Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder*:
Bilateral stimulation of the anterior limb of the internal capsule, AIC, using Medtronic Reclaim DBS Therapy is indicated as an adjunct to medications and as an alternative to anterior capsulotomy for treatment of the chronic, severe, treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adult patients who have failed at least three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
- Medtronic DBS Therapy for Epilepsy:
Bilateral stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) using the Medtronic DBS System for Epilepsy is indicated as adjunctive therapy for reducing the frequency of seizures in individuals 18 years of age or older diagnosed with epilepsy characterized by partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization, that are refractory to three or more antiepileptic medications. The Medtronic DBS System for Epilepsy has demonstrated safety and effectiveness for patients who average six or more seizures per month over the three most recent months prior to implant of the DBS system (with no more than 30 days between seizures). The Medtronic DBS System for Epilepsy has not been evaluated in patients with less frequent seizure
- Check with neurosurgeons if brain MRIs may be safely performed
- significant cognitive or psychiatric problems