Urethral syndrome is a set of symptoms from inflammation or irritation of the urethra. It is not related to an infection from bacteria or a virus.
- Presents like cystitis but no significant bacteriuria
- Some respond to antibiotics
- Dysuria - pain or burning, frequency
- Difficult urinating, suprapubic discomfort
- Bacterial cystitis
- Painful bladder syndrome
- Vulvodynia, Genital herpes
- FBC, U&E, CRP, Ca.
- Urinalysis may not show infection and MSSU and cultures
- Cystoscopy to evaluate the bladder
- Intravenous pyelography (IVP) or computed tomography (CT) scanning to assess the upper urinary tract
- General: ensure hydrated. Exclude fungal or other infections. Dietary therapy is geared primarily at increasing urinary pH.
- Urethral dilation: women with true urethral stenosis as the aetiology of their symptoms experience significant improvement after urethral dilation.
- Hormone replacement
- Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
- Muscle relaxants