Paediatrics is the branch of medicine that is concerned about the child and its development and care and about the diseases of children and their treatments.
- Lasts 280 days = 40 weeks
- One fertilized cell develops into a full human being
- The prenatal stage is divided into
- Embryonic stage: Is the first 8 weeks of development. Body parts are differentiated. The bases for all organ and body systems are formed
- Fetal stage: Lasts from the 9 thweek of intrauterine life till birth. The organs and body systems develop fully and start functioning gradually
- Starts with birth and lasts till 18 years and 364 days of age
- A newborn is a child just after birth: It is the first 28 days of life, starting with birth. It may be divided into: Early newborn period: The first 7 days of life. Late newborn period: The remaining first 21 days of life. The body systems adapt for the extrauterine life. The majority of major inborn developmental disorders manifest. The consequences of perinatal pathologies manifest: asphyxia, infections. Intrauterine pathologic states continue. Tendency towards generalization
- A neonate is a child in the first 28 days of life
- An infant is a child under 1 year: The Infant Period. Starts from the 29thday of life and ends on the child's 1st birthday. It is a period of dramatic somatic, neuropsychological and motor development
- Toddler: Starts on the 1st birthday of a child and last until his 3rd birthday. It is characterized by the gradual development of independence in a child
- Preschool Period: Starts on the 3rd birthday of a child and lasts until his 6th birthday. The Majority of children are capable of starting school attendance at the end of this stage
- Puberty and Adolescence. Puberty begins on average at age 10 in girls and 12.5 in boys. Sexual maturity is usually reached within 2 to 3 years since the beginning of puberty. Growth is usually complete years since the start of puberty. Puberty should be reserved for physical growth and changes. Adolescence describes psychosocial development
- A child is between 1 year and puberty.
- A full-term newborn weighs between 2500 and 4200 grams, measures 50 cm and has a head circumference of 34 cm. Newborns are equipped with reflexes: Rooting reflex, Suckling reflex, Grasp reflex, Plantar reflex Moro reflex
- Have developed hearing: They prefer speech to noise. They prefer higher frequency voices. Shouting frightens them. Smell sense: Helps them in orientating themselves in the environment. They turn away from bad smells. They recognize the scent of the mother
- Taste preferences are present since birth: They prefer sweet taste. They avoid bitter taste. The retina is fully developed but accommodation of the eye lens is insufficient. Fixation of and following moving objects with eyes starts by 2 months of age. They prefer watching: A human face Clear colours, Contrast colours
- Psychosocial Development During the First Year of Life. Crying is the main way of communication during the first few weeks of life. After 12 weeks, crying decreases in frequency and is substituted by smiling, touching and mouth play. During the first year of life, children recognize reality as their immediate surroundings
- They start realizing the continuous existence of items between 9 and 12 months. They start manipulating with items using devices by the second year of age. They start changing periods of visual contacts with periods of turning their faces away by 3 to 6 months
- Hide and seek games develop by 9 months. Separation fear and fear of strangers develop between 8 and 9 months
- Able to perform, record and interpret a full pediatric history
- Carry out, record and interpret a complete physical examination in all pediatric age groups.
- Identify and solve common clinical problems in paediatrics by providing a provisional diagnosis and appropriate differential diagnosis.
- Recognize urgent and emergency situations in paediatrics and be able to outline an appropriate plan of action.
- Outline a general plan of investigations and management of common pediatric problems as they relate to Saudi Arabia
- Demonstrate an understanding of how to use the laboratory to reach a diagnosis of common pediatric problems
- Demonstrate knowledge of community problems related to child health.
- Demonstrate knowledge of preventive aspects of childhood health problems and implement them.
- Recognize his limitations concerning the management of pediatric patients and the need to consult and cooperate with others to provide optimum care.
- Interact with children and their parents or relatives in a gentle, emphatic and appropriate manner